К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №1 - 2007
Автор: Кызыкеева А.Б.
the system of Higher Education began to develop only in the Soviet period since
the absence of necessary amount of professorial staff, the economic decline,
the slow rise of school education detained the process of higher school
organization up to the end of the 20’s. Before this the experts of higher
education were trained basically in Moscow, Leningrad, and Tashkent.
significant date in the system of higher education was 1928. In 1926 the Kazakh
Department was founded at the Tashkent Pedagogical Institute. In 1928 it was
transferred to Alma-Ata and converted into the Kazakh State University. Two
years later it was renamed into the Kazakh Pedagogical Institute. In 1935 it
was named after Abay Kunanbayev (now it is the Kazakh National Pedagogical
Institute). Since that period some new institutes and universities were opened
gradually – the Zooveterinary Institute (Alma-Ata, 1929), the Agricultural
Institute (1930), the Technical Institute (Alma-Ata, 1934), and the Kazakh
State University after S. Kirov (now it is the Kazakh State University after
Al-Farabi). In 1931 the first Medical Institute was founded. Pedagogical
institutes were opened in Uralsk, Aktyubinsk, Petropavlovsk, and Kustanay. The
system of correspondence education began to develop in 30’s.
important period in the system of higher education was 1936 – 1938. The
decisions regulating the order of entering high schools were adopted in 1936.
In 1938 at the Kazakh State University the first postgraduate program was
But in the
30’s high schools of Kazakhstan, despite of high rates of their development,
did not satisfy the need of the national economy for the staff as many of them
were at the initial stage of develop ment. Among the students and the
professorial staff the number of representatives of indigenous population grew
slowly. In 1936 there were only 8 Kazakhs were among 42 teachers of the Kazakh
State University. The problems of higher education were aggravated with Stalin
reprisals, that took the lives of outstanding scientists and teachers away.
period is 1941-1945 – Great Patriotic War. The Scientific potential of
Kazakhstan grew much. First of all, it was connected with the fact that the
evacuated scientists and scientific institutes stayed in the republic. During
the war a scientific degree of the candidate and the doctor’s were given to 130
teachers of high schools and seven new institutes of the Kazakhstan Department
of the USSR Academy of Sciences were organized. The Pedagogical Institute of
Foreign Languages (1943), the Shimkent Institute of Construction Materials
Technology (1943), the Conservatory (1944), and the Female Pedagogical
Institute (1944) were founded in Alma-Ata. After the war the Karaganda Medical
Institute (1950), the Semipalatinsk Zooveterinary Institute (1951), and the
Karaganda Technical Institute (1953) appeared. The research and pedagogical
staff was completed due to evacuated and subjected to repression scientists and
teachers. The number of students grew from 10, 4 thousand in 1941 up to
15, 1 thousand in 1945.
The next date
we might denote is 1946. The largest event after the war was the foundation of
the Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences (June, 1, 1946). The members of the Academy
of Sciences of Kazakhstan were the outstanding scientists of the period. The
first president was K.I.Satpaev. However, in all branches of the republic
national economy in the first post-war years there was observed a sharp
shortage of qualified personnel. In the 50’s 13 institutes were founded
post-war period the most vulnerable point in the system of higher education was
a lack of educational and material resources. For a long time there was the
lack of educational rooms, dorms, textbooks, scholarship funds, school desks,
chairs, bedside-tables, and bedding. In the educational institutions teachers
and students used morally and physically out-of-date equipment, devices,
mechanisms, and means of training.
of the professorial staff did not meet the requirements. In 1960 just 99
people, or 2,2 % of regular teachers of high school had were a rank of the
professor or a doctor's degree only 921 people. Senior lecturers, teachers with
a candidate’s degree or 20, 3 % of all staff of high schools. The situation
varied slowly. By the 90’s more than half of the professorial personnel of high
schools had no academic statuses and degrees. The amount of teachers with the
doctor’s degree and the professor’s degree did not exceed 2% of an aggregate
number of high school teachers. In six higher educational institutions there
were no teachers with doctor’s degree at all.
In 1959 the
state committee was formed to centralize higher education management. Then it
was transformed into the Ministry of Higher Education of Kazakhstan.
period is 1962 – 1963. The Khruschev’s ideas of approximation of intellectual
and physical work and the strengthening of connection between school and
industry led to a radical reform of education at the end of the 50’s and the
beginning of the 60’s. In 1958 the law that was duplicated in 1959 with the
republican Law “About Strengthening of Connection of School and Life” was
passed. According to the Law the compulsory eight-year education was brought in
instead of the seven-year and ten-year education. After that the graduates were
obliged to work at factories or in agriculture for three years, combining work
and study or to study at polytechnic schools. Entering high schools then was
caused by the industrial experience, instead of theoretical preparation of
applicants. In Kazakhstan the transition to the new system was completed in
caused ambiguous consequences. The turnover of staff in industry increased. The
prestige of higher education fell; scientists and intelligence worked on
physical, unproductive works to the detriment of their professional work.
In 1964 some
positions of the reform were reconsidered, and the compulsory ten-year
education was introduced, new curricula and plans started to be developed, and
in 1970 the charter of an average comprehensive school was affirmed. Three
steps of education - initial (up to 3 classes), eight-year and comprehensive
ones (10 years) were brought in. The graduates of the eight-year schools could
continue education in the ten-year school or technical training colleges and
comprehensive special educational institutions, and then had the right to enter
years the system of higher education developed gradually. Main changes were
basically observed in the number of students. In the 60’s, 70’s and 80’s 27
institutions of higher education were opened, i.e. almost as many as for the
previous period. The number of specialities also increased. In 1986, 550
thousand students of more than 200 specialities were trained in 55 high schools
and 246 technical schools. The scales of changes were well visible on the
comparative background: in total for two years (1978-1979) the number of
graduates from high schools and technical schools was equal to the number of
students graduated within the 50’s.
period is 1991-1994. The acceptance of the Law on languages and corresponding
articles of the Constitution marked the revival of national education. Schools
and university departments with the state language of instruction appeared.
After 1991 the private education establishments - schools and higher education
institutions appeared. The leading higher educational institutions - the Kazakh
National University after Al-Farabi, the Almaty State University after Abay,
the Kazakh Polytechnical Institute and others - opened new departments
necessary for the professional training of experts, capable to undertake a
responsible task in the realization of the independent domestic and foreign
policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The International Kazakh-Turkish
University after H.A.Jassavi in Turkistan, the Institute of Culture in Uralsk,
and other establishments of higher education enrolled their first students.
international connections of the system of national education extended those
years. In 1991 over 1000 Kazakhstani pupils, students and post-graduate
students continued their education abroad. The structure and subjects of
scientific searches of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of
Kazakhstan was harmonized with new requirements. New scientific research
institutes were organized. The network of Branch Academies of Sciences
extended. Engineering and Agricultural Academies of the Republic of Kazakhstan
began to work. For award of scientific degrees and assignment of academic
statuses, quality assurance of dissertational works the Supreme Certifying
Commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan was founded.
At the same
time the negative moments were also observed: the financing of science and
education was cut down, and owing to economic difficulties social vulnerability
of teachers amplified.
legislative and normative legal base of higher education of the independent
Republic of Kazakhstan developed at that time. The primary goals of the period
were the creation of a network of higher education institutions and the
updating of specialities of higher education to maintain the sufficient
independence of the republic in professional training, the satisfactions of
needs of market economy, areas and regions. The accepted measures of the period
found the legislative fastening in the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “About
Higher Education” (1993). In 1994 the State Standard of Higher Education of the
Republic of Kazakhstan was authorized. For the first time it defined the
introduction of multilevel structure of higher education in the country,
academic degrees of bachelors and masters.
period is 1995 – 1998. The Kazakhstan system of higher education was
modernized. The given stage was characterized by:
conceptual definition of the development of the system of higher education that
found its reflection in the Concept of the State Policy in the sphere of
education, authorized by the National Council on State policy at the President
of the Republic of Kazakhstan on August, 4, 1995,
acceptance of new normative legal statuses regulating the activity of higher
- The first
educational standards on 310 specialities of higher education were accepted
sector of education was actively developing.
important period is 1999-2001. The principles of entering higher educational
institutions changed cardinally. The transition to experts’ preparation with
higher education was carried out on the basis of the state educational order.
Since 1999 a new model of a student's contingent formation was introduced by
giving the applicants state educational grants and state educational credits on
a competitive basis.
tendency of the development of higher education was the refusal of the state
monopoly for education, the cancellations of the rigid centralized management
in the sphere of education and the strict regulation of the activity of higher
education institutions. As a result the private sector of higher education
started to develop under the law of a competition on equal terms. The state
higher educational institutions received the right to carry out the enrollment
and training of students on a paid basis.
important point was the work on the recognition of the Kazakhstan documents
abroad and similar foreign documents in the Republic of Kazakhstan. That was
promoted by the signing on April 11, 1997, of the ratification and the
statement by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 202-13
RК of December 13, 1997 the Lisbon Convention on the recognition of the
qualifications concerning higher education.
on the Mutual Recognition and the Equivalence of documents on education,
scientific degrees and ranks was signed on November 24, 1998 between the
Governments of Byelorussia, the Kirghiz Republic, the Russian Federation, and
the Republic of Kazakhstan. The given agreement was deposited in the Ministry
for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan and came into force on
October 1, 1998.
the Report signed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of
Kazakhstan and the Moscow State University after M.Lomonosov, the Kazakhstan
Department of the Moscow State University was founded in Kazakhstan. The
Russian-Kazakh Modern Humanitarian University (nowadays the Kazakh-Russian
University) was founded in Karaganda.
international connections of the system of higher education extended. Many
students began to study abroad in the following basic directions:
international educational exchanges;
- the grants
of the Governments of foreign states and the international organizations;
international grant "Bolashak";
of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan began to take part in
the realization of programs of the international organizations of UNESCO,
ACTR/ACCELS, Peace Corps, Information Service of USA (USIS), SOROS Foundation,
the American Council on the International Researches (IREX), the British
Council in Kazakhstan, the German Service of Academic Exchanges (DААD), the
National Center of School and University Programs of France (CNOUS), and the
Bureau on Linguistic and Pedagogical Cooperation of the Embassy of France in
realization of all these tasks was possible only on a strong normative legal
basis; and with this purpose the new Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “About
Education” was accepted in June, 1999. Education was proclaimed the priority
sphere of the state policy which was fixed by the guarantees including legal
and economic obligations of the state. The Law in the corresponding articles
differentiated the competence and the responsibility of central, local
representatives in the sphere of education within the framework of the
established competence. To improve the quality of experts’ preparation, special
attention was given to the question of perfection of higher education.
So, in 2001
according to the International Qualifier of Education Systems a new Qualifier
of Preparation Directions and Specialities of Higher Education was developed
and passed. According to the new Qualifier the work on the development of the
state standards of education was started. The main difference of the new state
standards was in the fact that 70% of total amount of an academic load made the
state component, and 30% academic hours were realized by high schools. It
raised the academic freedom and mobility of high schools and allowed taking
into account the features of the demand of a labor market of a certain region
in the corresponding experts. The state standards of higher education are now
obligatory for all higher education institutions regardless of patterns of
ownership, their types and kinds.
state standard on blocks of social-humanitarian and natural-science disciplines
in the structure of educational-professional programs was developed and issued.
It was passed with the purpose of carrying out of the uniform ideology,
humanization of the system of higher education. Such unification allowed
providing the academic mobility of students and adaptability to manufacture of
the educational process.
in the quality of experts’ preparation, especially in private high schools,
caused the introduction in 2001 of the State Accreditation of high schools -
the recognition (the confirmation by the state for the next term) by the state
of the status of the organization of education).
period is 2002 – 2004. The bases for transition of the system of professional
training on the world standard “bachelor - master model” were incorporated. A
complete three-stage model of a professional training (a bachelor degree - a
master school - doctoral studies), based on the credit system of training was
created. High schools were given significant academic freedom. The scientific
research used in training became more active, the academic mobility increased.
A new model
of formation of a student's contingent by means of carrying out complex or
uniform national testing and giving state educational grants and state
educational credits on a competitive basis to the most prepared youth was
the traditional system of educational process organization the credit system of
training which stimulated the active independent work of students was adopted.
It provided the electivity of an individual educational trajectory, mobility,
the big degree of academic freedom of students and post-graduates; promoted the
recognition of documents on education in the world educational space.
The system of
the independent external estimation of educational achievements took root: the
unified national testing (UNT) and the intermediate state control (ISC).
of conditions for preparation for accreditation of professional educational
programs of high schools according to the requirements of the leading foreign
accreditation agencies was carried out.
The amount of
higher educational institutions, the contingent of students, and the state
educational order increased.
positive moment in Kazakhstan for the years of its development is the
preservation of social unity, as the objective result of constructive
cooperation of people included in different kinds of the organizations.
education of Kazakhstan at the present stage is characterized by:
continuous structure of education supposing the realization of the opportunity
of life-long learning,
modernization on the basis of national traditions and world tendencies in the
sphere of education,
equality of access to all steps,
- the unity
of its elements and requirements,
continuity of all steps of education.
In sphere of
the higher school the priority directions now are:
improvement of the quality of higher education,
- the development
of scientific researches,
perfection of the educational technologies,
formation of the system of additional higher education.
History of Kazakhstan since ancient times up to now. A sketch. Almaty, 1993
Kann G.V. History of Kazakhstan. Almaty, 2005
Kuzembayuly A., Abil Е., History of
the Republic of Kazakhstan – Almaty, 1998
Piskunov A.I. History of pedagogics and education. Мoscow, 2001
The national report on the development of the system of higher education of the
Republic of Kazakhstan
6. The state program of the development of education in the
Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2010.
К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №1 - 2007