К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2006
Автор: Шелухина Ю.В.
Nowadays the analysis of discourse or “the
analysis of language in use” seems to be very important. Spoken and written
language, as it appears in natural context, draws the attention of many
discourse analysts. The attempts to investigate different aspects of the
language bear their fruits. The discourse analysis helps “to understand”
lexical and grammatical system of the language, and, exactly, the use of this
system in one or another context. This analysis is not restricted to the
description of linguistic forms, which exist independently; “it is designed to
serve in human affairs” (Schiffrin, 1994). When we conduct a discourse
analysis, we investigate “what the language is used for” (Schiffrin, 1994).
Thus the primary source for discourse analysis is the natural spoken and
In this work I make an attempt to make
discourse analysis of English grammar. It seems to be rather relevant to
investigate this aspect of the language. The learners of ESL often lack the
natural data and context while studying grammar. They are provided with the
definite rules, examples, and a set of sentences, which they should put in a
right grammatical form. Thus the goal of this work is to conduct
discourse analysis of grammar on the example of the novel “Theatre” by W.
Somerset Maugham and elaborate recommendations for teaching grammar in
The subject is the aspects of discourse analysis; the object is the extracts from the novel “Theatre”.
To achieve the goal I put some tasks:
1) to observe the theoretical data in the
sphere of discourse analysis and discourse grammar;
2) to investigate some extracts from the novel
“Theatre” in different grammar aspects, i.e. tense, modality, noun phrase, use
3) to investigate the separate extracts
from the novel for illustrating discourse analysis of grammar in its unity;
4) make some recommendations - how
discourse analysis may be used in teaching grammar.
The first part covers the theoretical
aspects of the discourse analysis of grammar. Such aspects of analysis as
informational flow and discourse structure are considered more detailed. The
second part is a practical one. The research of grammar is conducted there on
the example of some extracts. In conclusion some recommendations for teaching
grammar as a discourse are provided.
I. Aspects of Discourse Grammar
1. General Overview of Discourse Grammar
As it was mentioned earlier, the discourse
analysis is the analysis of the language in its use by various speakers. It
seems to be extremely important to investigate discourse in different aspects
of language. First of all, it is the lexical-grammatical system of the language.
This system and discourse are not two separate things, but it is viewed as a
whole unit. In this respect language is viewed as discourse.
From the point of view of many
discourse-functional grammarians, discourse is the primary place, where we can
find grammar, and also it is the source from which grammar is formed.
Susanna Cumming and Tsuyoshi Ono (T.A. van Dijk,
1998) say that discourse-functional approaches to grammar have two goals. The
first goal is a descriptive one. It describes the richness of the grammatical
resources. It gives the answers to such questions as what the speakers should
choose in a sentence as a subject or object: full noun phrase or pronoun; what
order the speaker should choose for subject and verb. The second goal is explanatory
one. It explains, for instance, the tendency for subjects to precede objects,
because of the referent, contained in subject and related to the discourse
“Discourse linguists interested in grammar
have tended to focus on three general kinds of explanation. Cognitive recourses
appeal to the cognitive resources and processes used by interactants in
producing and understanding language. Social or interactional explanations
appeal to the dynamics of the interactional situations in which language is
produced and consumed, and with the social and cultural norms, resources, and
goals of interactants. The diachronic explanations focus on the relationship
between discourse-functional pressures on grammars and grammatical change”.
(T.A. van Dijk, 1998) These three explanations do not exclude each other; they
are in the constant interrelation in many ways.
“The primacy of grammar in discourse both
as an object of description and as a source of explanations has important
methodological consequences for discourse grammarians. Unlike “autonomist”
grammarians, who consider grammar existence as completely independent of its
communicative uses, discourse grammarians pay their attention mostly to the
naturally occurring data, including as much as possible of the context. Many
discourse linguists understand discourse and its context as mutually creating
and complementary.” (T.A. van Dijk, 1998). Du Bois says about discourse in
grammar, “Grammars code best what speakers do most.” This observation has had
two significant consequences for the methodology of discourse approaches to
grammar, elaborated by many discourse grammarians:
1) Adaptation of quantitative methodology
which is concerned with statistical correlation between particular grammatical
forms and aspects of the linguistic and non-linguistic context.
2) Focusing on the form of the language
which occupies most of the time and attention of most language users everywhere
in the world: everyday “talk in interaction”. The interactive talk serves now
as one of the main sources of explanation for language structure and change.
2. Information Flow
There are a number of explanatory themes or
the so-called “conceptual tools”, which have been especially important and have
been used by discourse grammarians in their work. The great amount of research
is connected with the theme “informational flow”, which has to do with
information distribution (1; 115).
As we know, the primary function of
language is to convey information from speaker to the addressee. The misleading
point, according to Teun A. van Dijk, is that fact that the “same” information
is present in the mind of the speaker and in the mind of the addressee, and
moreover that the speaker’s representation of the addressee is exact. However,
we are interested in the speaker’s mental states and the speaker’s model of the
mental state of the addressee.
So, “information flow is generally taken to
be a cognitive matter, to be understood in terms of the mental states of the
speaker and addressee during discourse production and consumption” (T.A. van Dijk,
The main matters of grammatical phenomena
regarding to the information flow are the quantity of information in a unit
(noun phrase form) and its arrangement (argument structure).
Noun Phrase Form
One of the main points of discourse
investigation is the choice among different referential forms such as full noun
phrase, pronoun, “zero anaphora” (omission), and articles. As Chafe says, the
use of referential form depends on the fact how accessible the speaker judges the
referent to be in the hearer’s mind. Full noun phrases are associated with the
referents, which are not active in hearer’s mind, while pronouns are associated
with the active referents. The articles are associated with “identifiability”,
i.e. when a hearer can identify a referent, basing on previous discourse of
obtaining information from other sources. Thus, definite article is associated
with identifiable referents and vice versa.
Let us take the extract from the dialogue
given in the “Discourse as Structure and Process” by Teun A. van Dijk.
1 A:… Can you imagine man?
2 … They hired summer help
3 … three machines man.
4 … Two dudes
5 … A mayate and a white dude.
6 B: Nobody in finishing?
7 …. Just two guys they hired?
8 A: … So they got three new guys
9 … But they’re summer help.
10 … But the mayate,
11 … it seems like he’s worked…
12 B:… on the tables
The given example fully proves the words of
Chafe about the referential form. You see when referent is not active in
hearer’s mind, it is likely to use an indefinite noun phrase a shown in line 5.
When it is already identifiable, a definite noun phrase is used as in line 10,
where the word “mayate” is used with article “the”. When the speaker is sure
that the referent is fully active, the pronoun is used. We can follow it on the
line 11, where we use the pronoun “he”.
I’d like also mention the so-called
“environmental” conditions. In the line12, which is also an extract from the
dialogue, you can see a definite noun phrase, though it occurs in the text for
the first time, but we use it with the definite article. It happens so because
speakers A and B have worked in the same environment and they know what
“tables” it runs about.
Constituent Order and Preferred Argument Structure
Constituent order is the order of elements
in the clause, i.e. position of verb, subject and object. Information status
depends on all these criteria. The Prague school
linguists observed that, especially in languages with relatively flexible
constituent order, given information tends to come earlier in the clause than
new information. We know that English also has a stable word order in a
sentence and because of this fact; it tends to put new information in this way.
Let us take an example:
They saw this group of elephants
In this example we see that the new
information is used as an object of the transitive verb and it follows the
Though it is usual to build the sentences
in this way, there are some languages, where the unexpected and new information
is preceded by the verb, e.g. Classical Malay. In this language the known
information sometimes follows the verb and new information occurs as a subject.
…A group of elephants appeared in front of them
3. Discourse Structure
Another group of “conceptual tools” for
explaining the distribution of grammatical patterns in discourse is connected
with discourse structure. Grammar creates and reflects the high-level
organization of text in several ways. Full noun phrases, adverbial clauses,
pronouns are associated with the so-called “unit-internal locations” according
to Teun A. van Dijk. Some grammatical parts, for instance, verbs in Past Simple
are associated with narrative clauses. Types of inter-unit relation may be
signaled by different kinds of subordinate clauses.
We can see that different word relations
and word orders are characteristic of different kind of structure. Different
discourse structures are associated with different discourse genres. The theory
of discourse structure, obtained from different sources, e.g. anthropology,
sociology, is applied mostly in these cases.
Let us take the examples of two kinds:
Initial Adverbial Clauses
Adverbial clauses are placed either before
or after the clause they modify. In English they are usually determined by such
conjunctions as before, because, or although. The most important things
in research made by such scholars as Chafe, Thompson, Ford, and others, were
the factors, determining the position of adverbial clauses. As it turned out,
“the most general function associated with initial position for adverbial
clauses is that of creating and reflecting discourse structure by signaling
shifts in time, place or orientation” (T.A. van Dijk, 1998).
e.g. So Sang Sapurba left for Bentan. After
arriving in Bentan, he went into the country.
In this example the initial adverbial
phrase signals a text structure boundary to show a switch in time and location.
It describes the activities of the hero after he arrives in another place.
Noun Phrase form
Noun Phrase Form as well as initial
adverbial clause can show the text-structure boundary.
e.g. He circled, poking the pointed javelin
at her, clearly more fearful than aggressive.
“Hey, cut that out,” Leia brushed
the weapon away with annoyance.
It is understandable that we know already
who Leia is. It is usual now to use pronouns for indicating the girl in the
text as we can see from the first sentence from extract. The use of full noun
phrase Leia illustrates the presence of text-structure boundary. It
shows us the “boundary between an “initiating event” and a “reaction”.” (T.A.
van Dijk, 1998).
II. Discourse Grammar on the example of the novel
“Theatre” by W.
From the first part of this work it is
clear that the grammar system of the language and discourse are not two
separate things. According to the words of Michael McCarthy “we should think of
all language as discourse” (M. McCarthy, 1994). In order to understand better
how grammar and discourse are combined or, to say better, how they represent
the whole unit, we should take the texts and data from real life, i.e. real
dialogues, conversations, and narrations. “Studies of real data reveal that
grammar choices are directly related to the larger issues of how the discourse
is shaped and staged, offer the possibility of a discourse-related grammatical
inventory in the syllabus.” (M. McCarthy, 1994) Exactly this objective is the
main one in this work. For achieving this goal we will take the narrative as an
example. As M. McCarthy says, narrative as the prime example of grammar and
discourse is good, because it illustrates most frequently discourse forms in
daily life. We may take, of course, newspaper reports, as an example from our
daily life, with their definite structures and lexical and grammatical system and
analyze this system as a discourse. Exactly such kind of texts teachers use
very often at their lessons.
We will take a literary text, a novel
“Theatre” written by W. Somerset Maugham. The reasons for taking the novel for
discourse grammar analysis are the following. This text as any other novel has
“greater complexity and less regular and predictable pattering in different
grammar terms, especially tense and aspect”. (M. McCarthy, 1994) We can observe
“tenses and aspects in contrast with one another” and “the same interpersonal
and textual mechanisms at work.” (M. McCarthy, 1994).
We will observe the following discourse
aspects in the novel “Theatre”:
noun phrase form, i.e.
use of pronouns and articles;
constituent order and
preferred argument structure;
i.e. initial adverbial clauses and noun phrase form;
The following aspects will be observed at
first on the separate extracts and later the greater extract will be taken in
order to analyze its whole discourse structure from the point of view of all
At first let us consider those aspects,
which were discussed in the first part of the work – noun phrase form,
constituent order, and discourse structure.
1. Noun phrase form, constituent order, and
The extract which illustrates these aspects
is given in the Appendix 1.
The text begins from the introduction into
the text of the director of the theatre. Because of it, it seems to be
reasonable to start the narration from the name of the director – Jimmy Langton.
Then we can see the description of, firstly, his appearance and secondly, his
working style in the troupe. In the course of description in every sentence the
pronoun he is appeared. For every reader it is understandable that it
runs about the same director, with whom the reader has been already acquainted.
As for the constituent order we can also
follow the text and see that new information in the sentences is appeared in
the end, as it is usual for English:
…He loved acting, but his physique
prevented him from playing any but a few parts, which was fortunate, for he
was a bad actor.
…He worked his company hard.
In these sentences we can observe the
appearance of new information in the end, just after the known information.
In this extract we also see the discourse
structure performed by initial adverbial clauses and noun phrases.
…Though they said he drove them like slaves… it gave them a sort of horrible
satisfaction to comply with his outrageous demands.
This sentence with an initial adverbial
phrase shows the so-called “shift in orientation”. It shows the contrast in
mood and attitude of actors towards the way of rehearsing and the director
Another demonstrative in the discourse
structure is noun phrase form. The extract begins from the introduction of Jimmy
Langton, whose name appears in text. Then, when the reader knows who Jimmy
Langton is, the pronoun he is introduced while he process of the
description. After the description we can see the appearance of the name Jimmy
Langton again, even twice. It signals the so-called “text-structure
boundary” between the description of the person and real action of the novel. This
demonstrative - Jimmy Langton – returns the reader to the real events of
This aspect of discourse was not discussed
in the theoretical part of this work. We have decided to investigate it in the
real novel at once. The study of tense in narrative is a good example of the
approach that combines grammar and discourse according to the words of Schiffrin.
When we consider a very common textual form, narrative, “we get a glimpse of
how speakers and writers use tense and aspect to realize narrative structure
and to position them in relation to the receiver” (M. McCarthy, 1994). “The
writer has the freedom to segment the text into temporal frameworks of great
subtlety and complexity, to foreground certain events as a matter of textual
organization, and to involve or “detach” the reader to greater or lesser
degrees” (M. McCarthy, 1994).
In my own research of the novel extracts I
try to compare the use of tenses, to observe how the author involves the
reader, and how the reader is getting nearer or detaching from the events by
changing tenses and aspects.
The main point in tense research is the
comparison between the use of past tenses and “historical present”, which
occurs in the text in order “to bring the listener directly into the action
with the teller” (M. McCarthy, 1994). As M. McCarthy says, it is “the signal of
interpersonal intimacy from the teller”. (M. McCarthy, 1994).
Let us consider the extract from the novel,
which shows the great complexity and change of tenses. It is given in the
The first sentence is in Past Simple, as it
is usual for any narration. As we can follow the whole narration, it is written
in Past Simple tense.
Michael’s words begin from Present Perfect
tense. It is made for the purpose to show that the said information is known
already and the teller only wants to revise for it.
... I’ve had a good deal of experience.
Then the tense changes to Present Simple,
or, as we say by discourse analysis, “historical present”.
… I always design the sets myself for
our plays. Of course, I have a man to do the rough work for me, but the ideas
These sentences, appeared in historical
present, illustrate the process of approaching the listener to the teller. It
intends to show the real events of the present.
Then Past Perfect tense appears in the text
to show the events, which happened in the distant past. Only once it changes
into the Past Continuous in order to illustrate the pleasant process of their
tour and to get the listener a little bit nearer to the situation;
… when they were going on a tour…
The description in Past Perfect also breaks
in the middle and transfers into Past Simple in order to return the listener to
the real events. It is a kind of digression, which explains the further flow of
the story and change in the mood of Julia, who was not pleased with her
husband’s revelation regarding their previous life.
… it was unnecessary to impart such
tedious details to a young man whose name even they did not know.
After this remark the story returns again
into the distant past. It can be observed not only by the change of tense into
Past Perfect again …Julia, however, had insisted…, but also by the
change of aspect from active into the passive, which also illustrates the fact
that the action is carried to the past …The house was furnished in extremely
Thus we can see how the tenses and aspects
may change even in such small extract. All these changes, occurring in natural
events, can be explained by the changes in mood and attitude of the writer
towards events and the reader as a part of discourse analysis.
According to the meaning of M. McCarthy the
use of modal verbs as signs of modality is extremely important in any language,
but there are a great number of the devices for expressing the modal functions
at the discourse level. Some of them are such lexical words as possible,
probable, certain, likely, and of course such discourse markers as like,
sort of. These words take their place for expressing modality alongside
with the modal verbs.
… They are like me, there is no denying
In this sentence the marker like shows the certainty and confidence in the Julia’s words. It is obvious even
without the use of a modal verb.
… All right. You shall have this one. You
know I’m not a beautiful woman, I’m not even a very pretty one…
This example illustrates the mixture of
advice and necessity in the words of the heroin, when she tells her husband to
be with the other woman. It is perfectly done with the help of the verb shall.
Let us consider a little dialogue between
Julia and Jimmy Langton, the director of the play from the point of view of
modality. It is given in Appendix 3.
The whole dialogue is under the spirit of
“doubt and possibility”. It is felt from the first sentence, which begins from
the words I suppose. Next phrase contains the verb shall which in
this case also has the meaning of probability, but not certainty. The ending
remark also begins from the words I suppose which emphasizes the
uncertainty of the whole dialogue as well.
Thus modality can be expressed not only
with the help of modal verbs, but also with the help of other words. It would
be better to call these words “discourse markers” as they perform modal
functions in real everyday speech, and we know that discourse analysis deals
exactly with such kind of texts.
…I shall probably stay the night…
You see the discourse marker probably which performs the same function as the modal verb here.
4. Practical Overview of the aspects of
discourse grammar in the separate extract
The last point of this part is to observe
the extract from the point of view of all the aspects of discourse grammar. It
is given in Appendix 4.
Noun phrase form is represented by the use
of pronoun he just after the introduction into the text of the name Mr.
Funnel in the beginning of the extract. At first Julia did not recognize
the person, and when she understood who this man was, the writer uses the
pronoun he for indicating the man.
We can also follow the use of articles
… -I’ve got a matinee today.
- Come to tea after the matinee.
It a common rule for articles use, but it
also shows the example when the listener is not acquainted with exactly this matinee,
the indefinite article is used. When it is already known the definite article
As for constituent order, i.e. the appearance
of new information in the end of the statement, we can observe it in many
… it occurred to her that it might be the young man of
… I’ve been terribly busy the last few days…
… I’ve got a matinee today…
Discourse structure performed in initial
adverbial clause can be observed in the statement … As soon as I have a
moment to spare…The adverbial clause, beginning from the phrase as soon
as illustrates us the example of “shift in time”, which means that they
will meet only when she (Julia) will have time for it.
In this extract we can also follow the
change mainly between three tenses: Past Simple, Present Perfect, and Present
Simple. The extract begins from Past Simple and this tense predominates in it
as it is the most common tense in any narration. Sometimes it is interrupted by
Present Perfect and Present Simple. Present Simple or “historical present” is
used for bringing the reader to the real events of the novel; Present Perfect
reminds the listeners (in this case it is both Julia and Mr. Fennel) about
… so I’ve rung you up instead.. This
statement reminds Julia about Mr. Fennel’s act.
… I’ve been terribly busy the last few
days… This statement reminds Mr. Fennel about Julia’s deeds.
Modality is expressed by both means –
discourse markers and modal verbs as well.
… you don’t catch me a second time like
that.. The marker like expresses certainty in Julia’s words, comparing the real experience with the
… “I can’t possibly,” she answered…
This sentence contains both modal verb and discourse marker possibly. It
expresses the certainty concerning Julia’s decision, but it is softened a
little bit by the lexical word possibly in order to not offend Mr.
Fennel by sharp refusal. The modal verb can’t in the question “Can’t
I come and see you while you’re resting?” expresses the permission, but it
is said more firmly than if the verb “may” is used.
As we can see, it is possible to make
discourse analysis of any extract from any narrative. In this work we take grammar
aspect for the grounds of analysis. It corresponds to the goals and tasks of
the work – to investigate and apply discourse analysis in teaching grammar. It
corresponds to the primary source of discourse – natural conversations and
dialogues. The best ways of applying discourse grammar in teaching are given in
the conclusion of the work.
In two previous parts of this work I tried
to fulfill the tasks and achieve the goal, put in the introduction. I discussed
and made the discourse analysis of the real novel in different grammatical
aspects. In conclusion I try to show how the practical results of the discourse
analysis may be applied in teaching, especially teaching grammar.
As I have mentioned earlier, while teaching
grammar the students are mostly provided with general rules and separate
exercises in order to practice these rules. When the students begin to speak or
to write letters or essays, i.e. to use the language, it happens very often
that they forget about the grammatical rules, which they have just practiced in
the exercises. Thus, I can state that it is necessary to study grammar in
For teaching grammar I’d like to make some
suggestions. First of all, the ordinary course of grammar should start from
teaching grammar rules, provided with the examples. The next step in teaching,
or better to say practicing grammar, is in natural context. The teacher should
give the students texts from everyday use, e.g. newspaper articles. Different
types of writing are also possible. They students should make discourse
analysis of the texts according to different grammatical aspects, e.g. tense,
aspect or modality, as it was done in the second part of this work. They make
their own conclusions in what context and why exactly one or another grammar
rule is used. Then they can fulfill such tasks as to write their own articles,
describing the latest news; to write essays and letters. The students should be
provided with a great number of natural texts in order to be able to analyze
the grammatical aspects and the language as a discourse.
The students can also benefit from
discourse analysis of spoken texts. The informational flow, i.e. the use of
full noun phrases, pronouns, articles, constituent order etc. is very important
in speech as well. It is necessary to know, where we should use full noun
phrase and where the pronoun can be used; in what chain we should tell new
information and what structures should be used by it. The students can learn to
make discourse analysis in grammar aspects of the spoken texts as well.
All these aspects of language seem to be
very important ones. The discourse analysis of any text is not unnecessary
matter. As we have stated earlier, discourse analysis is the language in use.
When do we use the language? Only in the case if we understand fully the
essence of any language aspect. Thus we should apprehend the language as
discourse; otherwise it will be impossible to use this language.
van Dijk T. A., 1998, Discourse
as Structure and Process Sage Publications London, Thousand Oaks, New
McCarthy Michael and
Carter Ronald, 1994, Language as Discourse: Perspectives for Language
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UK and Cambridge USA
Brown Gillian, Yule George Discourse Analysis Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 288
Maugham W. Somerset Theatre – M., Manager Publishing Group, p. 304
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O’Dell Felicity, 2001, English Vocabulary in Use (upper-intermediate), Cambrighe
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M.D., 1993, (Eds), Talking Data: Transcription and coding in discourse
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Jaworski, A., Coupland,
N., 1999, (Eds), The Discourse Reader, London:
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Potter, J., Wetherell,
M., 1987, Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour,
Silverman, D., 1997,
(Ed), Qualitative Research: Theory, method and practices, London: Sage
ten Have, P., 1999, Doing
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Wood, L.A., Kroger, R.O., 2000, Doing Discourse Analysis:
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Yates, S., Taylor, S., Wetherell, M., 2001, Discourse as data: A
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Hutchby, I., Wooffitt, R., 1998, Conversation Analysis, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press
… Jimmy Langton, a fat, bald-headed,
rubicund man of forty-five, who looked like one of Ruben’s prosperous burghers,
had a passion for the theatre. He was an eccentric, arrogant, exuberant, vain
and charming fellow. He loved acting, but his physique prevented him from
playing any but a few parts, which was fortunate, for he was a bad actor. … He
broadened every gesture, he exaggerated every intonation.
… He worked his company hard. They
rehearsed every morning from ten till two, when he sent them home to learn their
parts and rest before the evening’s performance.
… Though they said he drove them like
slaves, and they never had a moment to themselves, flesh and blood couldn’t
stand it, it gave them a sort of horrible satisfaction to comply with his
… It happened hat when Michael kept the
appointment he had asked for, Jimmy Langton was in need of a leading juvenile.
He had guessed why Michael wanted to see him, and had gone the night before to
see him play.
… While Michael explained the purpose of
his visit Jimmy Langton observed him shrewdly.
… Michael gave the room a complacent
“I’ve had a good deal of experience. I
always design the sets myself for our plays. Of, course, I have a man to do the
rough work for me, but the ideas are mine”.
They had moved into that house two years
before, and he knew, and Julia knew, that they had put it into the hands of an
expensive decorator when they were going on tour, and he had agreed to have it
completely ready for them, at cost price in return for the work they promised
him in the theatre, by the time they came back.
But it was unnecessary to impart such
tedious details to a young man whose name even they did not know.
The house was furnished in extremely good
taste, with a judicious mixture of the antique and the modern, and Michael was
right when he said that it was quite obviously a gentleman’s house. Julia,
however, had insisted that she must have her bedroom as she liked …
“I suppose it’s beastly of me,” she
thought, “but thank God, thank God.”
When he announced the date of his sailing
she could not contain her joy. She got Jimmie so to arrange his programmer that
she might go and meet him at Liverpool.
“If the boat comes in late I shall probably
stay the night,” she told Jimmie.
He smiled ironically.
“I suppose you think that in the excitement
of home-coming you may work the trick”.
… Some days passed, and one morning, while
Julia was lying in bed reading a play, they rang through from the basement to
ask if she would speak to Mr. Fennel. The name meant nothing to her and she was
about to refuse when it occurred to her that it might be the young man of her
adventure. Her curiosity induced her to tell them to connect him. She
recognized his voice.
“You promised to ring me up,” he said. “I
got tired of waiting, so I’ve rung you up instead.”
“I’ve been terribly busy the last few
“When am I going to see you?”
“As soon as I have a moment to spare.”
“What about this afternoon?”
“I’ve got a matinee today.”
“Come to tea after the matinee.”
She smiled. (“No, young feller-me-lad, you
don’t catch me a second time like that.”)
“I can’t possibly,” she answered. “I always
stay in my dressing-room and rest till the evening performance.”
“Can’t I come and see you while you’re
She hesitated for an instant…
К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2006