К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2006
Автор: Королева С.М.
We live in a significant epoch in the history
of humanity. The people of our generation are both the witnesses and the
participants of the transmission in a new millenium. It goes without saying
that the 21st century will be the time of the raise of science,
onrush of technology and impetuous progress. The increase of technology, as
well as political and economical ties and contacts between the countries has
affected all the spheres of life, above all the sphere of education.
Nowadays the educational system experiences
the process of informatization and globalization. Therefore, our society
requires the people who are able to accomplish cultural contacts, orient
themselves in the information flow of the quickly changing world, and solute
the problems by themselves. It can be gained subject to the development of the
whole educational system, which is the basis of the scientific and
technological revolution, and reassessment of the methods, techniques, and aids
of teaching. The modern pedagogical technologies like Cooperative Learning,
Communicative Learning, and the New Informational Technologies may satisfy all
the needs of contemporary education. They reveal every student as an
The New Informational Technologies, in
particular, Computer Assisted Language Learning, are under consideration in
this term paper. The question about computer application in language learning
is actual nowadays. Especially, it must be very important for the teachers and
students of the Kazakh-American Free University. Why? The thing is that only
the students of KAFU are provided with extra classes of computer technology and
English. Moreover, KAFU has turned to the credit system of education, which is
based mainly on the autonomous learning. These are the main advantages of our
university. I consider Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) as one of the
most suitable technologies for KAFU, because it aims at the development of the
students’ computer literacy, improvement of languages, and provision with autonomous
So, the actuality of the chosen
theme deals with the fact that CALL is not used enough because of the
incomplete investigation of its methodology.
The object of my research is the
informatization of education.
We suffer from
the lack of information about the usage of computers in learning languages.
Therefore, the subject of the research is the use of Computer-Assisted Language Learning.
The aim of this article is the working out the
methodological recommendations about the use of CALL.
Hypothesis of the investigation: if we use CALL, both
the students’ motivation and the level of language will rise.
Taking into consideration
the object, the subject, the aim, and the hypothesis of the present work I
defined the following objectives of the research:
Analysis of the
information about CALL;
Examination of the
practical experience of both foreign and native teachers;
Working out the
recommendations about the effective use of CALL.
This work covers both
didactic and methodological aspects of CALL, and reveals the potential of
computers. Having analyzed the results of the teachers’ and my own experience,
the recommendations about the usage of CALL were suggested. The first part
presents the methodological aspects of the New Informational Technologies and
reveals CALL itself.
With the development of new
technologies, there has been an attendant interest in applying these technologies
to the educational arena, and in making predictions of how they would affect
the educational future of our classrooms and students. Although most people
associate the birth of educational technology with the 1970s and 1980s, the
history of the educational computing actually goes back to the 1940s.
In 1946 the first electronic computer ENIAK (Electronic Numerical Integrator
and Computer) appeared. It has revolutionized the way we live and work. In the
1950s and 1960s, the most powerful computers occupied entire rooms.
Since 1954 the computer has
been applied to the sphere of education. Just at that time the first researches
appeared. However, the development of the microchip and miniaturization of
components enabled educational technology to move forward rapidly in the 1970s
and 1980s. Karamysheva writes that nowadays computer application to the sphere
of education is carried out according to three directions provided by the
national curriculums of education:
- CML (Computer-Managed Learning) [6, с.
We focus our
attention on CALL. It stands for Computer Assisted Language Learning. It is the
term most commonly used by teachers and students to describe the use of
computers as a part of a language course. It does not refer to the use of
computer to type out a worksheet, or by an educational institution to provide a
computerized bill for a student for language course fees. CALL is the latest in
the series of modern aids to language learning. It attracts the attention of
many scholars such as N. Burbidge, C. Chappelle, M. Sokolic, E. Polat, T.
Karamisheva, S. Novikov, N. Talyzina, and some others. Many problems and
questions appear about CALL because of its novelty. One problem with this new
approach to teaching has been that it tended to generate a wave of euphoria,
rapidly followed by a trough of frustration and disillusionment. Although
teachers still tend to look for miracle methods, their experience with, for
example language laboratories, has taught them to be wary of the benefits of
technology and to appraise each new advance with a critical eye. Later we shall
examine the didactic aspects and principles of CALL.
A theoretical question of computer application
to the sphere of learning languages is the object of study of computer
lingvodidactics. It is a new separate branch of didactics and methods of
teaching of foreign languages. Priorities in the field of lingvodidactics
change with the development of the New Informational Technology. NIT should
satisfy the didactic principles, cope with the problems that were not
theoretically or practically solved, and have computer as a means of
information transfer. So, Karamisheva defines the following classical
principles of application of computers to the learning of languages:
Scientific character implies the content of training material.
It should include fundamental status of science, and the perspectives of its
development. It should follow all the contemporary theories of knowledge
System approach to the presentation of new material, its
structuring, and definition of relations of the main conceptions
Systematic and logical character deals both with the organization of the
material to study, and the set of actions of learners do to acquire the
information. To realize this principle, the teacher must inform the learners
about the aim for study, and the chain of actions”. Krechetnikov says, ”The
brilliant content of learning course may be not acquired if the learner wastes
time in investigation of the inconvenient software. Therefore, it is necessary
to design suitable interface and the interaction model of user and program” [8.
Chappelle  adds these principles with
the following ones:
Language learning potential refers to the extent to which the activity
can be considered a language learning activity rather than simply an
opportunity for language use. The difference between language learning and language
use might best be characterized by the extent to which the task promotes
beneficial focus on form – interaction modification, modification of output,
time pressure, modality, support, surprise, control, and stakes.
While language learning potential captures
the findings concerning general processes, Learner fit takes into
account the individual differences in linguistic ability level and
non-linguistic characteristics. Skehan suggests that the teacher choose tasks
that will provide learners an opportunity to work with a range of target
structures appropriate to their level. Karamisheva calls this principle as the Principle
of accessibility which transmits from the principle of everyone’s usage to
the definite age group of the students. The principle of individual accessibility
is considered as the way to reaching the main educational aim. Moreover, it
motivates the students to study. It serves like a content filter, and traffic
light in the process of learning.
If the language
of a CALL task is already known to the learner, the task presents no
opportunity for development. Learner characteristics such as willingness to
communicate, age, and learning style also come into play in task choice.
Meaning focus (the principle of consciousness) is very
important in language learning tasks. It denotes that the learner’s primary
attention is directed toward the meaning of the language that is required to
accomplish the task. The learners should use the target language to accomplish
something such as making a decision on an issue, or exchanging the information
to accomplish a goal. Meaning focus is not limited to practise communication
tasks, but also can occur during tasks involving reading and writing when
learners use the written language purposely for constructing and interpreting
The criterion of Authenticity indicates the need to develop learners' willingness to communicate but it also
extends beyond the conditions believed important for acquisition. Authenticity
refers to the degree of correspondence between an L2 learning task and tasks
that the learner is likely to encounter outside the classroom. Due to such
tasks, the learner will be included in the natural language environment, and
he/she will be able to use language for particular purposes appropriately.
The positive impact of CALL task
refers to its effects beyond its language learning potential. Ideally classroom
language learning tasks teach more than language; they should help learners to
develop their metacognitive strategies in a way that will allow them to develop
their accountability for their learning in the classroom as well as to learn
beyond the classroom. They should engage learners’ interest in the target
culture in a way that will help develop their willingness to seek out opportunities
to communicate in the L2. They should help learners to gain pragmatic abilities
that will serve in communications in and beyond the classroom.
Practicality refers to how easy it is for learners and teachers to
implement a CALL task within the particular constraints include the
availability of hardware and software that are adequate for the planned
activities. In addition, knowledgeable personnel need to be on hand to assist
with unforeseen problems
Before the use of computers
in teaching it is very important to define the role that the computer, teacher,
and learner will perform. A variety of interaction patterns makes each
class different from the previous one. Students can work individually, in pairs
and groups, or as a whole class. Every student within each group can be
assigned different roles, and each group can interact in various ways with the
computer, the other group, and the teacher. As usual, the interaction of the
learner and computer has the following types: subject-object, subject-subject,
The schemes below show the
mixture of forms and operating modes. They suggest the variety of interaction
patterns that are possible with computers.
The 1st model
presents the most spread situation in CALL. It occurs when the computer is used
as an additional technical aid that provides with the autonomous learning. The
teaching, drilling, control programs are usually used in CALL. The instruction
must be conducted by the teachers.
The 2nd model implies the
autonomous learning in the individual conditions. For example, self-education
or autonomous learning of the language for filling the gap in knowledge. The
teacher here is the creator of the training course. The computer takes the position
of the teacher, technical aid, and a partner for communication.
The 3rd model corresponds to the case of
distant education. Here the computer is the vehicle for communication, and the
mediator between the learner and the teacher.
The 4th model
shows the possibilities of computer network to create the students’ collective
creative works such as the production of newspapers, writing stories, etc.
It can be carried out in
groups under the direction of the teacher.
The next model describes the
communication between different groups of learners with the use of
telecommunication computerized tools (E-mail, Interactive conferences), which
are the means of support of learners’ activity.
The last, the 6th,
model reproduces the group or pair work of learners who use one computer only
(e.g. using the software for learning of speaking). Here the teacher plays part
as an observer.
We observed some classes of
English (CALL) in secondary schools in Ust-Kamenogorsk. The analyses of the teachers’ experience as well as
mine shows that the most effective form of CALL is the interaction
“teacher-computer-group of students.” This collaborative work includes into the
process of learning all the ‘members’ of the educational process of CALL.
After deep consideration of the main
interaction patterns, which are used in CALL, we may conclude that the computer
serves as an aid or tool in learning languages, and the great support for the
teacher. Therefore, the computer in CALL may perform many functions, such as
communicative, organizational, stimulating, informative, drilling, conductive,
governing, correctional, and some others. But the teacher must always foresee
the future result of learning and use his teaching skills to make the process
of learning effective, and to avoid the extremes. But there is no ideal technology
or method existing in teaching. Every technology preserves its weak and strong
sides as well as CALL.
Underwood denounced the link between CALL
and explicit teaching: “It is important to stress that this negative view [of
computers as useful only for explicit learning through drills and tutorials] by
no means reflects limitations in computers themselves, but rather limitations
in the programs… Although much of the literature is devoted to arguing that the
computer can do this or cannot do that” [28, с. 234].
Therefore, we should examine advantages and
limitations of computers in learning language. The description of advantages
and shortcomings of computers in learning is presented below.
Although the computer is mainly a tool for
learning, it is a powerful one. It embraces functions of a TV, a video
recorder, a tape recorder, mail, a telephone, a dictionary, a notebook, typing
and translating machines, a guide, a teacher, and some others.
Computers equal, or surpass human
performance in many arenas. As computers can store and process enormous amounts
of information, they excel in areas where human memory may be deficient, or
where human patience may be easily exhausted. All the methodologists have a
concurrence about the potential of computers. Later we shall observe the main
possibilities of CALL.
Drills M. Sokolik states that “much of
language learning is facilitated by repetition, whether it is the repetition of
individual sounds, intonation patterns, conversational gambits, or other types
of words and phrases. Computers are useful in delivering drills for practice,
whether in grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, or listening, as they are
tireless in their delivery. Unlike human interlocutors who may grow weary of
repeating a word for a learner, a computer will repeat a word a hundred times
if the user wishes” [27, 481].
Having analyzed the practical application
of the computer in learning languages, we should note that it has some specific
advantages. The courseware, developed on the system of CALL, includes audio
(input to learners), graphics, flexible response analysis, automatic analyses
of surface features of a learner’s writing and feedback about grammatical and
stylistic errors (but sometimes not enough). It performs sociocultural context,
solutions of problems, positive input to learners (no fear before the screen).
While using CALL we can see the computer’s “literal approach” to checking
answers and its ability to focus learner attention on a specific area on the
So, CALL is characterized by the
organization of materials, including volume of material and random
presentations, scoring and record-keeping, graphics and animation, including
allowing student control, audio-cuing, and recording and storage of student
Computer-Adaptive Testing (CAT)
Tests usually involve
individual rather than group work, and for that reason it is useful for
students to spend at least some of the time working on their own on these
practice tests. Some of the word-processing activities are interactive,
however, and group discussions as a follow-up to the individual work are an
important technique for helping students learn as much as possible from the
Tests are intended to evaluate what the
student already knows rather than teach something new. Practice tests, however,
are intended not only to evaluate, but also to help students improve their
performance when they take the real test. As test takers respond, the test
adapts itself to each user by choosing subsequent test items based on a test
taker’s performance on preceding items. For example, if a learner performs well
on set of beginning-level items, the computer program will next present a set
of questions at the intermediate level. If the learner performs poorly on the
intermediate-level questions, the computer presents lower-level items in the
next question set. Therefore, CAT continually attempts to ascertain the
appropriate level for the learner’s performance. It can establish more quickly
and objectively than a standard pencil-and-paper test what the learner’s
If we accept the premise that the most
effective language learning happens when the learner’s target is just slightly
above his or her current level of understanding, then it becomes clear that CAT
can be very useful in the language classroom.
Corpora and Concordance
Computers are experts at storing large
amounts of information and categorizing or sorting it by user-determined
categories. M. Sokolic regards linguistic corpora and concordance programs as
“the types of tools and data that are increasingly being used in the language
classroom.. A concordance is a type of index that researches for occurrences of
a word or combinations of words, parts of words, punctuation, affixes, phrases,
or structures within a corpus, and can show the immediate context. The output
from a concordance search can be used in the preparation of such teaching
materials, such as grammar and vocabulary activities, for creating exercises.
It can be used also to look at the context in which a given word or phrase
occurs in a database” [27, 482].
Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
In both business and education, computers
are increasingly being used as a direct means of communication between users.
By linking up machines in different rooms in the same building, town (LAN), and
even countries, users can communicate directly with each other by using a
suitable program, or Internet.
Students find the ability to communicate
electronically both stimulating and motivating. This is a particularly interesting
development for foreign language learning.
The most common use of networked computers
is as a tool of communication between users. This makes it a natural choice as
a tool for language learning. Many researches have argued that CMC presents an
opportunity for authentic language use, making it an excellent tool in the
language classroom. I agree with them too. We will describe several forms of
CMC which can be effectively used in CALL. They are either asynchronous or synchronous
E-mail is the most popular form of
electronic message exchange, and the easiest to use. Instead of writing a
message, the learner just types it into the computer and it will send it to another
computer instantaneously. It is a mobile and cheap way for sending letters.
Many instructors and researchers have designed E-mail tasks to focus its use on
language learning. Authentic information that the learner receives from his/her
electronic pen develops student’s communicative competence. The learner uses
the “real” language in the “real” context.
E-mail is often used in KAFU:
1. Mara’s Golson writing class – the
students e-mail to their U.S. pen friends to develop writing proficiency.
2. P. Mitchell communicates with the students
3. Janat Nurbayeva, Donovan Platt assigns
the homework for the students via e-mail.
Chat is real-time, or synchronous, communication.
It has the informal feel of conversation, yet is mediated through writing. Chat
can be used to facilitate class discussions, for immediate feedback between
students and teachers outside of class time, or for communication between
students outside of class. It can be used in many of the same ways as E-mail,
but has the added feature of immediate response rather than the time lag
involved with E-mail. Therefore, chat requires the learners’ accuracy and
fluency in writing the reply. It serves not only as a means of familiarity with
the foreign culture, but also the channel for reporting about one’s own. It contributes
to the ‘dialogue of cultures’ or ‘cultural exchange’. The Chat raises the
students’ motivation, because they acknowledge the real usage of the language.
Here are some examples of the most popular chats: CHAT-SL – on-line
DISCUSS-SL – chat for the advanced
EVENT – SL – the discussion of current
The students may also create their joint
project work on a chosen topic. For this purpose, they should create their own
Home page where the results of their work will be published.
Conferences, newsgroups, and bulletin boards
“Conferences and bulletin boards are
systems that allow people to send messages to a wider audience. E-mail messages
are generally aimed at just one or two people, but a large conference may
involve several thousand people who read messages, comment on them, and post
their own. Conferences are rather like a chain letter where everybody who
receives the message has the opportunity to comment. They are a standard
feature of most commercial Internet services.
Bulletin boards work in a similar way to
conferences, but they are usually more local.
Newsgroups are discussion forums subscribed
to by people interested in a particular topic or hobby, and work in a similar
way” [17, 97]. To create a FORUM for English language learners on our KAFU site
would be a great opportunity for students to communicate and use the language
MUDS and MOOS
M. Sokolik presents very interesting
software - MUDs and MOOs, which are both synchronous and asynchronous in form.
They are typically text-based virtual spaces that rely on the ability of the
user to describe the environments (asynchronously), and interact within those environments
MUD and MOO users create stories by
inventing rich environments filled with objects that other users can manipulate
and investigate. By navigating through space, students create stories in an
impromptu fashion. They hold dialogues, open boxes, find secret messages and
secret passages, and move through “space.”
This type of interaction is more than mere
game playing. Aside from provoking learners to use language in both planned
ways (i.e., writing) and unplanned ways (i.e., interacting in the virtual
space), it is also satisfies the neurobiological correlate of “foraging” for
information, critical in the learning process.
Distant education is a universal form of
learning, which is based on the use of a wide spectrum of the traditional, new
informational and telecommunication technologies. Working distant courses
provide the learners with the improvement of knowledge in different spheres of
science; give the opportunity to get the education without leaving the house;
bridge the gap in learners’ knowledge; give the highly qualified degree to the
students who pass the exams appropriately.
E.S. Polat distinguishes three types of
distant courses. Those that are realized with the help of: “1) interactive
two-way TV (the teacher conducts lessons in one basic class where the
camera-recorders are set); 2) telecommunication software, and 3) multimedia as
the base of the course” .
KAFU offers the following distant courses:
Management, Finance, Accounting, Organizational Behavior, HR Management,
Multimedia, used in the language learning,
greatly varies the English lesson. It is beneficial for all types of learners.
The software presents the information visually, auditory, and kinesthetically.
The animation, sounds, and graphics turn the homogeneous lesson into a new type
where CALL is used. There is a great number of the software used in CALL. For
example, “Thousand words in English,” “Multilex,” “Professor Higgins,”
“Reward,” and many others. They contain interesting authentic texts. They are
easy for assimilation; therefore, they motivate learners for further
examination. The way they are constructed and the time they are used in CALL
are the fundamental criteria for effective and reasonable learning.
Maley, who studies the question about the
application of computer in learning, states that “Computers are, however,
different from other media in two main respects. They can allow the user to:
1) Carry out tasks which are impossible in
other media (such as automatically providing feedback on certain kinds of
2) Carry out tasks much more conveniently
than in other media (such as editing a piece of writing by deleting, moving and
The main effect that these features have on
methodology is that students can:
1) Work through some exercises on their own
and have them marked automatically by the computer (multiple choice and
total-deletion programs provide examples of this);
2) Carry out exploratory work which is not
assessed by the computer, but which allows them to see the results of their
decisions (word-processing, spreadsheet and stimulation programs provide examples
of this)” .
Students will usually gain more from these
activities, however, if there is an opportunity for them to discuss with the
teacher the work they have done on the computer
We may come to a conclusion that Multimedia Computing, the Internet, and the
World Wide Web have provided an incredible boost to Computer Assisted Language
Learning (CALL) applications. Once relegated to "novelty" status,
CALL is finally achieving the recognition it deserves thanks in large part to
these developing technologies.
Desktop computers are now able to play
natural human speech together with full-screen interactive video, impossible to
do just a few years ago. Users can now communicate and interact with one
another in real-time. Such virtual chats provide solid opportunities for
authentic language use among native and non-native speakers on an unprecedented
scale in terms of the numbers of users and the geographical distances involved.
However, I think that computers must be
used as a tool or supporter in CALL. They cannot substitute for the teacher in
educational process. We shouldn’t wholly rely on them because of their
incomplete investigation. Computers have still some limitations.
CALL as any other technology has its
problems and weak sides. Therefore, it attracts the methodologists’ attention,
and gives the ground for further development of computer technology. Before the
usage of CALL, we should get to know about the limitations of computers. Having
analyzed many sources of information, I can point out the main burning issue of
CALL. The problem is that there is no close coordination between methodologists
and programmers. The software often does not meet the requirements of
education. The programmers create new computer programs without keeping the
didactic principles, and following the main guidelines. It causes many
difficulties in language learning. Sometimes the teachers fail CALL because of
their poor examination of the software, or the wrong organization of the
learning process. M. Sokolik supports my point of view and adds, “The image of
the fully automated, teacher less classroom has disappeared from the landscape,
if it indeed ever was there. Although computers are useful adjuncts in second
language learning, they are still many things they cannot accomplish” [27,
478]. The majority of methodologists define five major areas into which
computers and technology have not yet made significant inroads.
The hope of pushing a button to translate
from one language to another has, for the most part, gone realized. Although
there are dozens, if not hundreds, of new tools for machine translation, most
fail at creating a text that a native speaker would consider idiomatic, or even
grammatical. Although simple language with high-frequency vocabulary and little
idiomatic usage can be translated fairly accurately, any deviations from that
formula still cause serious breakdowns in the comprehensibility of
Providing Appropriate Feedback to
Mechanized systems do not have the capability
to customize feedback with the same senility that a human instructor does. In
fact, the best feedback systems give a simple explanation of the right or wrong
answer, and many merely emit a noise, either pleasant or unpleasant, indicating
whether the user has provided the correct answer. More complete feedback may be
available in the form of links to other areas of a text or website to read or
Voice recognition refers to the capability
of a computer or software program to accept and interpret spoken dictation, or
understand and carry out voice commands. Although many modern home and office
computer systems are equipped with some type of voice recognition software,
these programs are still inefficient in accurately dividing a natural speech
stream into discrete words.
Modern word-processing software usually
comes equipped with grammar-checking routines. Unfortunately, as most users
will attest, this software falls short of the grammatical editing that is
required a language classroom. The software is not sensitive to context or
conventions of use, such as the difference between academic English written for
the humanities versus that written for the sciences. So, the student must trust
his/her own judgment about English Grammar.
Although there is the software that allows
instructors to insert their comments neatly in students’ word-processed text,
there is no software that can ‘read’ a text and write relevant comments on it.
These are the main weak characteristics that the teacher must take into consideration
when using CALL.
Having analyzed the practical work of
foreign and native teachers who give a try at CALL, and taking into account the
results of our own experience, we worked out the rules for the effective use of
CALL. Moreover, we have tested them both on the students of the 7th form and university students. In particular, we had CALL at the 7th form (school №28, 2004 academic year). It was conducted according to the
special program for the increase of students’ motivation and sociocultural
competence. It included the use of the electronic textbook, and E-mail
correspondence with native speakers. The results of the correspondence (the
letters) were the ground for the organization of the project works. At the end
of the course we created the electronic book for reading containing authentic
information of the projects. So, the learning had the beneficial effect. No one
who has observed the atmosphere of total absorption of a group of students
using computers can doubt its motivational power. This year we together with
the non-linguistic group (1course) carried out the electronic correspondence
with our foreign visitor Philip Lu. The students were creative and motivated
while writing the letter, and very excited about the answer. We are going to
continue CALL, because we have not practiced all the potentialities of the
computer. The range and sophistication of computer applications is increasing
with extraordinary rapidity. Unfortunately, the idea of using computers strikes
fear and dread into the hearts of the uninitiated. I think that the ideas
suggested below are useful for the teachers who are going to use CALL.
The first thing we should do is to examine
the technical situation in the educational institution, i.e. the availability
of computers as well as to investigate the level of the students in computer
literacy. The solution to the problems posed by the lack of machines is to make
use of the fact that a typical activity with the usage of computers has three
stages – pre-computer work, work done at the computer, and post-computer work.
The teacher should think over the process
of CALL. In particular, he/she chooses the best way of organization, the theme
of the lesson, and studies thoroughly the steps of the class. It is always
important to organize a lesson so that, while some of the classes are working
at the computer, the others are doing pre - or post-computer work.
Alternatively, two separate activities, one involving CALL and one not, can be
planned. The two halves of a class can then do the CALL activity on separate
In some cases, the actual period spent at
the computer may be very limited. For example, in many simulations the students
need only go to the computer to type in their decisions.
Any activities can take place away from the
computer. For example, many of the activities may involve transferring
information from one medium to another, from student to student, or from group
to group. Students listen to a tape-recording of a story and then sequence the
events of a story, or match sentences spoken with the characters in a story, or
load a text written by another group of students into a word-processor. One of
the main reasons for suggesting using of networked computers is that this
provides the optimum conditions for information - transfer activities.
The lessons must frequently involve an
information-gap, with one student, or group of students needing information
from others in the class to complete an activity. Sometimes the computer itself
has the information: programs involving total or partial deletion are examples
based on such an information gap.
A number of the lessons may be based on
opinion-gap activities. The students involved will have different opinions
concerning a problem-solving scenario, such as the cheapest way of allocating
resources in an adventure. Alternatively, the difference of opinion may be over
the best ending to a short story written on a word-processor. Assigning
different roles to students can be important in maintaining a creative
opinion-gap. So, the tasks and activities are very important in the acquisition
of knowledge. Carol A. Chapelle defines five guidelines for implementing
effective task-based activities in CALL:
1. Choose a range of target structures (i.e. the learners will acquire particular structures or develop form-meaning
connections when they are ready to. Learners need to be exposed to language
which is within their grasp);
2. Choose tasks which meet the utility
condition (i.e. a particular structure will be used by learners as they
perform a task. If a structure has ‘utility’ in a task, it would be useful but
not necessary structure for completing a task. Learners might choose the
structure but they might circumlocution to express their meanings in a different
3. Select and sequence tasks to achieve balanced
goal development (there are three main goals of language performance: fluency
– often achieved through memorized and integrated language elements; accuracy –
when learners try to use an interlingua system of a particular level to produce
correct, but possibly limited, language; and complexity – a willingness to take
risks, to try out new forms even though they may not be completely correct);
4. Maximize the chances of focus on form
through attention manipulation (learners’ attention to form while they
are engaging in meaningful tasks is called focus in form. The learners
comprehend what they are doing. The syntactic mode of processing helps learners
to internalize new forms and to improve in the accuracy of their existing
grammatical knowledge). In addition to negotiation of meaning and modification
of output, Skehan (Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition,
London1989.) identifies six task characteristics, although not all supported
by research, that may help to manipulate attention in a way that directs
learner’s attention more or less to linguistic form: time pressure, modality,
support, surprise, control, and stakes;
5. Use cycles of accountability
(Accountability refers to the learners’ responsibility to keep track of what
they are learning. The teachers have the responsibility of drawing learners’
attention to the need to be aware of the language that they are acquiring in
such a way that they can take stock of where they are and plan for their own
development. Learners take an active role in sorting out exactly what they are
II. Socio-affective conditions for SLA:
“Another set of conditions that should be
created for successful learning are those affecting the social and affective
aspects of learning. Work in this area has recently been synthesized to define
a construct of ‘willingness to communicate’. It is comprised of several layers
of underlying predispositions, including (1) the desire to communicate with a
particular person, (2) communicative self-confidence at that particular moment,
(3) interpersonal motivation, (4) intergroup motivation, (5) self-confidence,
(6) intergroup attitude, (7) social situation, (8) communicative competence,
(9) intergroup climate, (10) personality” .
Socio-affective conditions for language
acquisition should be constructed to promote learners’ positive disposition and
The most important point to make is that
computers are not very good at teaching by themselves. Therefore, CALL must be
held under the teacher’s strict control.
How effective computers are in the
classroom will therefore depend on the way the teacher and students use them,
and in this respect they are no different from any other medium.
There are no hard and fast
rules, but the following will be useful for teachers:
1. The software is more important
than the hardware. You must be able to use a variety of useful software.
2. Get to know the software.
It can take longer to get to know a piece of CALL software well then it cans a
textbook, because you have to work your way through it, rather than just
skimming through it. But it is worth spending the time.
3. Co-operate with your students.
They may well know more than you do about computers, so you can exchange your
knowledge about the language and teaching for their experience of using the
4. “Any teacher who can be
replaced by a computer should be” (Anon). Computers are not very good at
teaching by themselves, and the software will not run your lessons for you. You
can adapt, improve, and compensate for shortcomings in the software with the
techniques you adopt.
We have considered different
ideas and recommendations joined with the mutual aims, i.e. increase of
learners’ motivation, and provision the participants of the teaching process
with the effective use of CALL.
As we have entered the 21st century, the English language is so tied to technology that learning language
through technology has become a fact of life with important implications for
all applied linguists, particularly for those concerned with facets of second
Forward looking members of the profession
has changed in a world where communication occurs with computers and with other
people through the use of computers. As university teacher of English, I
decided to explore the possibilities of combining these two realities. I chose
the subject of study of my research (the use of CALL) not by chance. We must
meet the requirements of the Kazakh-American Free University, whose mission is
to graduate the specialists with the high level of the computer literacy and
knowledge of foreign languages. If the students are able to study English and
at the same time enhance their computer skills, they are quick to take
advantages of CALL that provide opportunities for both.
This work gave the description of CALL,
emphasized pedagogical principles, strong and weak sides of computers, and
illustrated the ways, and the results of the practical application of CALL
Moreover, the work contains the recommendations, and ideas about the better use
Having experienced CALL, I can say that the
hypothesis of the present work was proved. CALL encourages language learning,
and sustains the students’ interest and their engagement in the process of
teaching. It increases learners’ motivation and the level of language increase.
Computer-Assisted Classroom Discussion
Computer-Assisted Language Learning
Computer-Assisted Language Testing
CMC – Computer
LAN – Local Area
MOO – Multi-user
MUD – Multi-user
NIT – New
Азимов Э.Г. Материалы Интернета на
уроках иностранного языка // Иностранные языки в школе.-2001.- № 1.- C.
2. Ахметова Г.Б. Дистанционное обучение: внедрение
информационных технологий в учебный процесс / Г.Б. Ахметова, Ж.М. Тусубаева //
Менеджмент в образовании.- 2003.- № 3.- С. 50-53.
Бухаркина М.Ю. Мультимедийный
учебник: что это? // Иностранные языки в школе.-2001.- № 4.- С. 29-33.
Владимирова Л.П. Новые
информационные технологии в обучении иностранным языка. htpp://virtlab.ioso.ru/method
Государственная программа развития
образования в Республике Казахстан на 2005-2010 годы // Казахстанская правда.-
2004.-№7. - 16 октября.
Карамышева Т.В. Изучение
иностранных языков с помощью компьютера. В вопросах и ответах. - СПб.: Издательство
Крюкова О.П. Самостоятельное
изучение иностранного языка в компьютерной среде (на примере английского
языка). - М.: Логос, 1998.
Кречетников В.Г. Особенности
проектирования интерфейса средств обучения.// Информатика и образование.-2002.-
№ 4.- С. 65-75.
Мишина Г.С. Из опыта работы с международными
проектами // Иностранные языки в школе.-2000.- № 4.- С. 54-57.
Новиков С.П. Применение НИТ в
образовательном процессе // Педагогика.-2003.- № 9.- С. 32-39.
10. Подопригорова Л.А. Использование Интернета в обучении
иностранному языку//Иностранные языки в школе.- 2003.- № 5.- С. 25 -31.
Полат Е.С. Обучение в
сотрудничестве // Иностранные языки в школе.-2000.- № 1.- С. 4 – 11.
Полат Е.С. Новые педагогические и
информационные технологии в системе образования: учеб. Пособие для студентов
пед. вузов и системы повыш. квалиф.пед.кадров / М.Ю. Бухаркина, М.В. Моисеева,
А.Е. Петров/ под ред. Е.С. Полат.- М.: Академия, 2002.
Протасеня Е.П. Компьютерное обучение:
за и против //Иностранные языки в школе.- 1997.- № 3.- С. 10 -13.
Саланович Н.А. Лингвострановедческий
подход как средство повышения мотивации при обучении иностранному языку в
старших классах средней школы: автореф.дис. канд.пед.наук - М.: 1996. - 27 с.
Селевко Г.К. Компьютерные (новые)
информационные технологии //Творческая педагогика. - 2001.- № 1.- С. 47-68.
Таратута Е. Опыт изучения
восприятия текста в Интернет: Тез. междунар. конф. – СПб.,1998.- 76 с.
Letters/ Nicky Burbridge, Pets Gray, Shelia Levy, and Mario Rinvolucri// Oxford University Press, 134 p.
18. Carol A. Chappelle.
Computer Application in Second Language Acquisition.- Cambridge Applied linguistics. New York. –2001.
Cheryl M Kenzie.
Homepages. Built-in Motivation/ Cheryl M Kenzie//Forum.-Jan, 2002.-p. 34-36.
B. Ellinger. Weaving
the web into an EAP reading program/ B. Ellinger, S. Sandler, D. Chayen//
Forum-Apr,2001.- p. 22-25.
Introduction to subject work / T. Hutchinson // Oxford University Press.-1991.
Jeremy Harmer. Hoe to
teach English. –Essex.- 2003, 198
Natalie Hess. Teaching
large multilevel classes.- New York.- 2002. 197 p.
A. Kayzer. Cerating
meaningful Web Pages: A Project-Based Course/ A. Kayzer// Forum – Luly, 2002.- р.
A. Maley. CALL./ D.
Hardstry, S.Windeatt// Oxford University Press. -
1988.- 165 p.
M. Marco. Internet
content-Based Activities for ESP/ Forum.-July,2002.-p. 20-25.
Marianne Celce –
Murcia.Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Thomson Learning. - 2002, 584 p.
Computers, and the Language Teacher. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1984
К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2006