К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2012
Автор: Васильева Т. А.
are aimed to educate individuals who can use Turkish and the abilities of
speaking, writing, listening and reading efficiently; who can express their
feelings, ideas and dreams; who are sensitive to national values and who has
the consciousness of the language and the top level conscious abilities such as
classification, investigating and critical thinking, and the ones who can take
responsibilities and work creatively with a group or individually. Especially,
the ability of creating is the field that requires a more thorough scrutiny.
Creative thinking is often described as any imaginary product involving
original thoughts beyond the straight-line thinking platform. Student-based
education and carefully planned lessons have great importance on developing
creativity. The activities which enable students to take active part in the
lesson, to express their thoughts clearly and without any fear and democratic
atmosphere are effective to discover the creative sides of the students. A teacher
of Turkish language should help to form and develop creative thoughts by
organizing activities suitable for the students’ social and linguistic levels,
which are based on the use of the students’ creative sides in the fields of
listening, watching, reading, speaking, writing and learning grammar, apart
from the ones given in the Turkish activity books.
Creativity is the
action of changing not only the world but also ourselves. Artistic creation is
the different expression of subjective inner life during changing process. It
is to realize the reproduction with one’s experiences, sensitivity and
perception attitude; to find and discover new relations in dialectical meeting
of subjective with objective. Creativity is to reach the solution in different
ways in the action formed with dreams, imagination, sense of humor and
intellectual, attention, judgment, and argumentation. Creative people benefit
from their past, intellectual accumulation, experiences, perceptions and
imagination in the process of creativity. Creative people can achieve more, can
Creativity has a
great role in improving abilities of mind. Creativity is complementary of
intelligence and it is the top step. Intelligence can be described as
collecting information, learning and abilities of using these and adapting
different situations. It expands the content of these abilities by making connections
and relations between information. There is a process of looking for a creation
including concept, feeling and imagination searching and finding out. The
connotation of this process with sensation and feelings that stem from
perception constitutes a beginning for an efficient metaphor process.” And
Conrad called this “creativity” . According to the researches, left
hemisphere of the brain is the center for creative thinking. If we are to explain
the learning process of right and left brain briefly; left hemisphere is
defined by features mentioned mostly with Mathematics, such as analytical,
logical, systematic, numerical and rational. Right brain is defined by features
that are mentioned mostly with art, such as instinctive, holistic, visual,
sensory and spatial. Left-brain dominant people learn by phonetic and
analytical methods, whereas right-brain dominant people learn by visual methods
. For many people left cortex is interested in logic, words, lists, numbers,
linearity, analysis, etc. Left cortex deals with these activities while right
cortex waits ready to help in stand by or “alpha wave” position . The future
of humanity depends on creative individuals and a particular education for
their creativity. All original and superior works that societies have are the
works created by people with creative thinking. For every society, the most
important educational problem is the early determination of the children who
have creative features and forming and developing creative thinking of an
individual. Because the people with the characteristics of creativity are the
most important potential for the development of both the society they belong to
and the whole humanity. The magic and secret power which brings developed
countries that are advanced in all fields today to this stage is to provide an
educational environment which is suitable for individuals with creative
thinking, and according to their abilities and levels. Their creative powers
should be turned into products which serve the welfare of their society and
other societies. As the aim of education and teaching activities is to
ensure changes in students’ behavior in the desired direction, this means that
students are the focus of these activities.
So it is important
to find out to what extent the students’ behaviors change in the direction of
target aims and the main factors that affect students’ success. When generally
looked at the education process, it is seen that individuals who seem to be
more successful mentally are supported more and rewarded but their creativity
is ignored. In this context, teachers have the most important function in
fulfilling education activities and they should support individuals’ creativity
and they should help to develop their creativity power to upper limit with
their behaviors. For this reason, societies need individuals whose creativity
power is in upper level besides the individuals who are mentally in upper level
in order to develop. There are abilities that are accepted to contribute to
creative thinking. These are the abilities measured with tools developed by Torrance and they are known as explanation, fluency, flexibility and originality :
constitutes a ground for creativity. Individual’s explanations and expansion
about the related subject, event and case are important abilities that
determine individual’s creativity. Not using these abilities effectively and
not ensuring different expansions causes abilities to be confined.
many acceptable ideas, solution or alternatives in a certain period. It shows
the number of unusual usages and innovations expressed or done. For individual
to produce many ideas, solution or alternatives about the subject, event or
situation is an important indicator of creative thinking.
Flexibility: It is
the diversity in produced ideas, solution or alternatives and bringing
versatile perspective to the subject, event and situations. It is the number of
categories about the unusual usage and the number of approaches used in
requires diversity in thinking and looking at the events from different perspectives.
Originality is a feature that requires mental energy, and it shows up in rare
and unusual reactions. They are the ideas different from the known and simple.
It expresses the unusual change and the number of usage. The emerging idea
should be new and rare. In other words, answers should be different from the
usual. Unusually, creative thinking individuals naturally have got different
features from an average thinking person.
are more flexible than other individuals and they adapt to new situations more
easily. They are more careful. They see what is important for others and care
about these. They are more compatible and sensitive about the environment and
other people. They have self-confidence and they are confident. It is observed
in the researches about creativity that almost all children have creative
thinking in different levels. Creative abilities are observed more easily in
younger children, however they disappear because these creative abilities are
not reinforced or they are blocked with some comments such as “ do the right,
do not’ be silly” or “how did you do that like this?” .
has had an important role in the development of societies. Inventions and
discoveries which have improved societies have emerged as the product of creative
thinking and creative problem solving. So, what is important for creativity?
Creativity contains thinking in different cases in such a way that is flexible,
fluent, original and different from the usual. Life is full of creative
thinking events . It is the subject of the discussion whether education of
creativity is acceptable for creativity in real life, but, besides there are
many evidences about improving creativity at school. Versatile thinking ability
has a central importance in creativity in real life. It is observed that this
versatile thinking ability can be improved by many educational programs . In
creative thinking, classroom atmosphere is another element as important as
educational programs. Classroom atmosphere has a big effect on improvement of students’
creativities. These are some advices for preparing an atmosphere that supports
creativity in a project oriented class:
1. Make various
materials and equipments available.
2. Reduce the
negative results of taking risk.
3. Expose students
to many different creative products.
4. Make resources
about many different subjects available in order for students to find things
they are interested in and things that will activate their imagination.
flexibility about time and classroom order.
5. Encourage the
students to cooperate in projects.
6. During the
project work, make sure that students have a quiet period, because noise may
connections between the students and the creative people in society.
8. Think creatively
yourself and share your products, process and happiness resulting from your
success. Be a model.
In any step of
education, success depends on student’s motivation. Researches show that
extrinsic motivation gives harm to creativity whereas intrinsic motivation improves
it . State of the problem Which activities can be done in learning fields;
listening, speaking, reading, writing and grammar in order to improve
creativity in primary education Turkish lesson?
There have been
important developments about language teaching in our country in recent years.
Teaching Turkish is stated not only as improving language abilities such as
listening, speaking, reading, writing, visual reading and visual presentation
but also as improving mental abilities such as thinking, understanding,
sorting, classifying, questioning, relating, criticizing,
analyzing-synthesizing, and evaluating. In this process, students are expected
to improve their abilities such as using Turkish correctly, beautifully and
effectively, communicating, problem-solving, decision-making, maintaining
lifelong learning :
1. Using Turkish
correctly, beautifully and effectively.
One of the most
important elements for Turkish lessons to be effective and useful is the
education of improving creative thinking.
Communication is a
case needed by people most and a natural result of individual’s being a social
presence . It is the natural understanding of people, transferring feelings
and thoughts, and expressing themselves. Speaking is the most important means
of the communication, at transferring level. Speaking is transferring thoughts,
feelings and information to the other side by using the language consisting of
sounds . Speaking field has an important place in education and teaching
The signs and
symbols perceived by the help of voice organs and eyes are interpreted,
evaluated and sensed by brain. This process is called “reading”. It is aimed at
learning field that students can read the written text they confront in daily
life correctly, fluently and using the most suitable methods. It is also aimed
that they can evaluate what they read, interpret with a critical point of view
and acquire reading habit 
described as expressing feelings, ideas, imaginations and desires in a written
form . By improving writing skills, it is aimed that students express their
feelings, ideas, imaginations, plans and impressions by taking advantage of
language opportunities, and in accordance with the rules of the language. It is
also aimed that students acquire writing habits to express oneself and for
those who have writing ability improve their writing skills . In accordance
with these targets, students are oriented to express their feelings, thoughts,
dreams and impression in written form. In the study of literary texts,
different methods can be used in accordance with the goals set.
1. Writing the
rest of the text and completing.
2. Writing a new
ending for the text (shortening or extending).
3. Changing the
point of view.
4. Changing the
setting, time or characters.
characters by adhering to the plot of the original text or changing the plot by
adhering the characters.
6. Improving the
characters in the plot of literary text.
7. Changing the
speech format (dialogue, interior monologue, periphrasis, etc.)
8. Writing various
texts about a known motive, character or story.
9. Writing parody
from a literary type to an other type (changing a text to an other text with a
11. Constructing a
new text by connotation chain of the title, concept or motif in the text .
is based on critical point of view, and finding unusual, new and original
solutions. It is possible to use creative thinking in all learning areas of
teaching Turkish such as listening, reading, speaking, writing and grammar.
Creative thinking cannot be ignored at the point of raising students who can
think, criticize, question, analyze, synthesize and make evaluation. So it is
really important to create and apply activities allowing students’ creative
thinking. First Turkish language teachers and then all educators have a very
important duty about preparing Turkish lesson materials in accordance with
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К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2012