К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2012
Автор: Каменева Наталья Сергеевна
It is well known
that the English language is a very popular language nowadays. Every day many
people start to study English. More and more people want to communicate in this
language. It is quite understandable-our world is changing, life requires new
demands. To be successful we have to be communicative person. To get great
opportunities we are to follow these demands. And one of these demands is
The history of the
English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who
invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons
and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time, the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language.
But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders -
what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from England and their language was called Englisc - from which the words England and English are derived
. We can distinguish some periods of English language development: Old
English (450-1100 AD), Middle English (1100-1500), Modern English (Early Modern
English 1500-1800) and (Late Modern English 1800-Present) . The main
difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary.
Late Modern English has words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the
Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly.
Therefore we can see the long process of its development. So many changes, so
many discoveries can be described during these periods. Within its development,
the word-stock is enriched by a great number of words, which can be used in
different spheres of our life. For example in industry, we have its own terms
and phrases. Sometimes it is seems difficult to remember these words but for
professionals it is quite easy to do.
Now we want you to
know about some smart points, which are in the Address of the President of
Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, to the People of Kazakhstan, January 28,
2011: “I have always said that knowledge of three languages is an obligatory
condition of one’s wellbeing. Therefore, I believe that by 2020 a share of our population speaking English should be no less than 20 percent” . So on the
basis of the President’s address people should tend to learn languages for the
sake of our feature. People should understand the importance of knowledge and
its power. Language can provide us with a high style of life, good mental
abilities with an opportunity to communicate with people of different cultures.
In schools and in
Universities children and students learn English and it is their first step to
language learning. But the problem is that this process is a very generic.
People can touch only the surface of a huge “sea” of words, phrases and terms.
Having finished a university students possess only some general understanding
of the language. They find jobs concerning their profession (for example an
interpreter) and their first working day is awful! Why it happens - it is easy
to guess for you. Our universities can give a general language program. Those
who work hard and try to remember everything explained at the University,
nevertheless usually fail their first “week” of the job.
Well, it can be a
real and a serious problem which can be faced by all the students of language
departments. Exactly after finishing University young people do not know how to
improve the situation. They think they know everything but it is not like it
We can say that
the problem of our educational -is a short time and a huge volume of
information. Students must for a short period of time become good
professionals, but it is impossible, unfortunately.
One of the ways to
improve the situation is learning English for occupational purposes. We shall
try to explain this idea.
From the early
1960's, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) became one of the most prominent
areas of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching today. Its development is
reflected in the increasing number of universities offering an MA in ESP and in
the number of ESP courses offered to foreign students in English speaking
countries. In Japan too, the ESP movement has shown a slow but definite growth
over the past few years. Especially, increased interest has been spurred as a
result of the Mombusho's decision in 1994 to largely hand over control of
university curriculums to the universities themselves. This has led to a quick
growth in English courses aimed at specific disciplines, e.g. English for
Doctors, in place of the more traditional 'General English' courses. Finally,
on November 8th in 1996 the ESP community came together as a whole at the first
Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes, held on the campus of Aizu University, Fukushima Prefecture .
A very heated
debate took place on the TESP-L e-mail discussion list about whether or not
English for Academic Purposes (EAP) could be considered part of ESP in general.
At the Japan Conference on ESP also, clear differences in how people
interpreted the meaning of ESP could be seen. Some people described ESP as
simply being the teaching of English for any purpose that could be specified.
Others describe it as the teaching of English used in academic studies or the
teaching of English for vocational or professional purposes. At the conference,
guests were honored to have as the main speaker, Tony Dudley-Evans, co-editor
of the ESP Journal mentioned above. Very aware of the current confusion amongst
the ESP community in Japan, Dudley-Evans set out in his report to clarify the
meaning of ESP, giving an extended definition of ESP in terms of 'absolute' and
'variable' characteristics (see below) .
Let us see the
Definition of ESP (Dudley-Evans, 1997) :
1. ESP is defined
to meet specific needs of the learners.
2. ESP makes use
of underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves.
concentrates on the language appropriate to these activities in terms of
grammar, study skills, lexis, discourse and genre.
1. ESP may be
related to or designed for specific disciplines.
2. ESP may use, in
specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of General
3. ESP is likely
to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in
a professional work situation. It could be for learners at secondary school
4. ESP is
generally designed for intermediate or advanced students.
5. Most ESP
courses assume some basic knowledge of the language systems.
Dudley-Evans offers is clearly influenced by that of Strevens (1988) ,
although he has improved it substantially by removing the absolute
characteristic that ESP is "in contrast with 'General English'"
(Johns et al., 1991: 298), and has included more variable characteristics. The
division of ESP into absolute and variable characteristics, in particular, is
very helpful in resolving arguments about what is and is not ESP. From the
definition, we can see that ESP can but is not necessarily concerned with a
specific discipline, nor does it have to be aimed at a certain age group or
ability range. ESP should be seen simple as an 'approach' to teaching, or what
Dudley-Evans describes as an 'attitude of mind'. This is a similar conclusion
to that made by Hutchinson et al. (1987:19) who state, "ESP is an approach
to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based
on the learner's reason for learning". If we agree with this
definition, we begin to see how broad ESP really is. In actual fact, one may
ask 'What is the difference between the ESP and General English approach?' Hutchinson (1987:53) answers this quite simply, "in theory nothing, in practice a
great deal" . When their book was written, of course, the last
statement was quite true. At the time, teachers of General English courses,
while acknowledging that students had a specific purpose for studying English,
would rarely conduct a needs analysis to find out what was necessary to
actually achieve it. Teachers nowadays, however, are much more aware of the
importance of needs analysis, and certainly materials writers think very
carefully about the goals of learners at all stages of materials production.
Perhaps this reflects the influence that the ESP approach has had on English
teaching in general. Clearly the line between where General English courses
stop and ESP courses start has become very vague indeed. Rather ironically,
while many General English teachers can be described as using an ESP approach,
basing their syllabi on a learner needs analysis and their own specialist knowledge
of using English for real communication, it is the majority of so-called ESP
teachers that are using an approach furthest from that described above. Instead
of conducting interviews with specialists in the field, analyzing the language
that is required in the profession, or even conducting students' needs
analysis, many ESP teachers have become slaves of the published textbooks
available, unable to evaluate their suitability based on personal experience,
and unwilling to do the necessary analysis of difficult specialist texts to
verify their contents.
So now it is
necessary to return to the Kazakhstan President’s Address regarding development
of the country. The main aim of Kazakhstan is to become a developed country. To
reach this goal it is necessary to involve foreign investors to this process.
As we know, Kazakhstan is a leading country in the sphere of industry. Our
President involves foreign specialists to improve and to develop industrial
production. On the assumption of this we need more skilled specialists (for
example interpreters) to provide opportunities for clear communication and
understanding between representatives of different cultures. For instance,
Kazakhstan’s specialists who were taught by the foreigners (Germans, Americans
etc.) during starting of copper plant, “New Metallurgy project” (I worked that
time at the construction site as an interpreter), was carried out by means of
professional interpreters who were aware in the sphere of metallurgy. It helped
to avoid misunderstanding between metallurgists.
Therefore, we can
say that we need more language specialists skilled in a certain sphere of production.
Educational program at the Universities should be oriented towards needs of the
regions. Including demands of East Kazakhstan Oblast, we need more language
skilled interpreters in the sphere of nonferrous metallurgy.
The most important
difference lies in the learners and their purposes for learning English. One
can add to it by saying that ESP concentrates more on language in context than
on teaching grammar and language structures. It covers subjects varying from
accounting or computer science to tourism and business management. In some
cases, people with inadequate proficiency in English need to be taught to
handle specific jobs. In such cases English is taught for specific purposes so
that the concerned employees can perform their job requirements efficiently.
for Specific Purposes (ESP) has a wide scope and superimposes other
nomenclatures such as EOP and EAP. An article on ESP available on the Internet
says: ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course aims are determined by the needs
of a specific group of learners. ESP is often divided into EAP (English for
Academic Purposes) and EOP (English for Occupational Purposes). Further
sub-divisions of EOP are sometimes made into business English, professional
English (e.g. English for doctors, lawyers) and vocational English  (e.g. English
for tourism, aviation).
In conclusion, we
can say that English words have various meanings, depending on the context
where they’re used. English for occupational purposes identifies that problem
and teaches the appropriate use of the word for a specific occupation or
industry. English for Occupation Purposes courses narrow down the broad
definitions of word usage to those necessary for the industry. By doing this,
it cuts the time necessary to learn the language necessary for the job.
of English for occupation purposes are developed to give participants
sufficient input and practice in basic report writing so that they would be
able to undertake and perform similar tasks effectively in their workplace.
Special attention is given to the steps involved in the preparation of a job.
When a company
operating in English employs professionals for whom English is a second
language, the company is obliged to provide language training for its
employees. Otherwise, many of its labor, some in main posts, may be handicapped
by poor speaking or writing skill. However, the company is not interested in
its employees achieving fluency or advanced level, though this can be desirable.
The main concern of the company is that communication for the purposes of job
performance is effective.
Some examples: a
switchboard operator who is fluent in spoken English is, of course, ideal for
this post. However, a non-native speaker with such level of English would not
accept the job of a switchboard operator. Most probably, the job will attract
some school leavers with some spoken language. However, they need to attend
language classes before they start the job. The training need here is to
develop the listening and speaking skills that will enable them to answer the
phone, offer help, connect the caller or say why he cannot and offer to take a
message. These are the minimum requirements of the job. In a three-week
training course the operators will be able to do this. Yet they will frustrate
when some callers use unfamiliar expressions and vocabulary.
In other words,
the company is responsible for training the employees to do their jobs - not to
read English newspapers and write articles there. This nature of the type of
language skills required in the different jobs make 'English for Occupational
Purposes' training. An engineer who is required to write 'Technical Reports'
can develop the skill for example by attending a six-week part-time course.
However, he may find it difficult to socialize with native speakers in the
social events of the company. Nevertheless, unless it is part of his job to
receive and entertain visitors, the company is not interested in developing his
language skills in this area.
including language training should be based on an accurate process of
identifying training needs and should be designed and implemented by a language
specialist well informed in ESP/EOP and language training .
Robert Mc Crum, William Cran, and Robert Mac Neil. The story of English.
Published in Penguin Books., 1993.-394 p.
Address of the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, to the People of Kazakhstan, January 28, 2011.
Laurence Anthony. English for Specific Purposes. What does it mean? Why is it
different? Okayama University of Science.
Dudley-Evans, Tony (1998). Developments in English for Specific Purposes: A
multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge University Press. (Forthcoming).
Strevens, P. (1988). ESP after twenty years: A re-appraisal. In M. Tickoo
(Ed.), ESP: State of the art (1-13). SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
Hutchinson, Tom & Waters, Alan (1987). English for Specific Purposes: A
learner-centered approach. Cambridge University Press.
Rahman, T. (2000). Language Ideology and Power. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2012