К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2012
Автор: Кулинка Елена Сергеевна
institutions are oriented toward improving the quality of the educational
process and the effectiveness of learning a foreign language. During XX century
linguistics, psychology, methodology and didactics solve a number of
interrelated problems of learning and mastery of foreign language learners of
all ages and levels of education. In particular, it is important for school and
university methodology problem that the assimilation of language is a process,
which is not particularly clear. Some words and phrases are memorized easily
for the assimilation while others require special exercise. But with differentiated
work students can take an active lexical minimum.
If the student can
perform the equivalent of the word of the native language, does this mean that
he knows the word? Apparently, he does. Does this mean that the student will
correctly use the same words in expressing his thoughts? Most likely, no, it is
If the student,
seeing a foreign word, learns it, but he does not understand the meaning. Does
this mean that he knows the word? Yes, he knows it. But is this knowledge
enough for reading texts, not to mention foreign language communication? Of
course, it is not.
Vocabulary is one
of the most important parts of the teaching process. Vocabulary is a stock of
words that every language contains. Vocabulary is the basis of every language.
Teacher has to introduce the new language in such a way as to capture the students’
attention and place the words in their memories. So that to progress in
vocabulary learning students need to be aware of some techniques for memorizing
lots of new words. Vocabulary learning can often be seen as a difficult process
of memorizing lists of unrelated terms. Nevertheless, there are many
interesting and successful ways of learning and teaching vocabulary in the ESL
vocabulary? Vocabulary is a set of words of a language. The words that people
use in their practice of speech, oral or written, shall constitute an active
vocabulary. Vocabulary in the language is an essential component of language
skills: listening and speaking, reading and writing. The richer and more varied
vocabulary a person has, the easier it is it uses his language.
The main purpose
of learning the lexical material is to develop student’s vocabulary skills as
an essential component of expressive and receptive types of speech activity.
There is a scale
for languages for the reception, production, and interaction, which gives an
idea those students, should be able to start to learn a language .
are characterized by greater awareness, which is shown in its choice of words,
in combination with other words and according to the purpose of communication.
Also there are some lexical skills such as operations on the analysis of words,
word-formation and constructing word combinations.
attention to this aspect of foreign language speech has several reasons:
expression depends on the level of knowledge of a foreign language;
2) new vocabulary
is not homogeneous in its psychological and psycholinguistic characteristics;
3) vocabulary is
considered as the base language;
skills are an important component of these types of speech activities such as
listening, reading and speaking;
5) there is a need
to systemize previously studied lexical units.
On the teaching
skills of vocabulary items A. W. Frisby  said that "While the teacher
is not concerned with the actual selection of vocabulary for text book purposes
since practically all the books we use are based on limited vocabularies, it is
important that he/she (the teacher) should know the principles, which underlie
vocabulary selection". Hereby it means that a teacher should be proficient
and innovative in the application of methodologies pertaining to teaching vocabulary
items in a classroom situation. These are the main methodologies for teaching
A good option in
teaching vocabulary items can be careful listening to the words in a
heterogenic classroom. "Let the students hear the word in isolation and in
a sentence. If the sounds of the word have been mastered, the students will
hear it correctly with two or three repetitions."  Slow pronunciation
without distortion will help. It will be also useful to break the word into
several parts and build up to the whole new word.
word enables the students to remember it longer and identify it more readily
when they hear or see it.
When using methods
of grasping the meaning, the teacher should try to get the meaning to the class
without using translation. This is not preferable on the ground that translation
may or may not provide the meaning of the word accurately and precisely. It is
advocated as it enables the class to go without grasping the meaning of a word
that they have learned to pronounce rather than to depend upon the translation.
can be passive and active. Students need to possess active and passive
There are three
basic second or foreign language word acquisition levels :
1. Unknown / new
word - a learner does not know the word, never saw it written, and never heard
2. Passive word:
a) the learner heard the word in the past but he/she is not sure about its
meaning now; b)the learner can recognize/ understand the meaning of the word
only when it is written; c) the learner cannot spell the word but can pronounce
it; d) the learner can write / spell the word correctly but cannot pronounce it
correctly; e) the learner heard the word (or saw it written), however, s/he
cannot use the word in speech; f) the learner can recognize the word only when
it is pronounced by someone, however, s/he cannot spell it correctly.
3. Active word -
the learner can use the word fluently and correctly in all situations, in its
written and spoken form.
The most important
for comprehension is teaching passive vocabulary. When students listen to
speakers they need to possess some active vocabulary. They should have enough
knowledge of words used by others to comprehend their meaning. This is also
called receptive knowledge of the language.
is the most important for advanced learners. Students need to have not only
some language knowledge but creativity. They should create their own sentences
and use their vocabulary. Students use the words they can understand and
manipulate in order to use for their own personal expression. This is called
vocabulary needs clear understanding of words to know what is actually being
said. Students need to be able to carry this knowledge over into the real world
in phrases and sentences. Teacher needs to find the meaning of words so that
students can fit the words together, build sentences and create their own
When students are
taught new words, they need to understand these essential principles :
- Meaning of the
word – its definition
- Context - how
can this word be used in real
- Spelling –
correct spelling of
- Pronunciation -
how will they say this word? Will the sound they produce be stressed correctly
and to the standard of speech?
- Grammar –part of
speech, positions in a sentence
- Accent - the
pitch, tone and length of the word
- Purpose- what
purpose this word has
- Cliche`- this
word or phrase is so overused that it lost its original meaning
There are some
effective strategies for teaching vocabulary. These are explicit (intentional)
and implicit strategies (spontaneous).
vocabulary instructions are the following.
vocabulary words (when reading texts students need to define new unfamiliar
words, and then discuss them and their meaning with a teacher).
of words (students need to repeat and use new words for several times before it
becomes a part of their vocabulary).
(words are presented to students before reading the text by giving them keywords
(a part of definition, illustrative example or image). It helps to remember the
meaning of the word).
(students write down new words and characterize them according to several
categories (classification, qualities and examples). It develops complete
understanding of the words).
(students analyze words by defining their roots and definitions; they break
down unfamiliar words into prefixes, roots and suffixes).
reading materials (this strategy is used for improving students’ vocabularies;
unknown words can be replaced by synonyms; teacher restructure materials in
different ways so that to help students to understand them more easily).
instructions are the following.
learning (a word is used a text so that students can determine its meaning).
Context skills are
the strategies that are used for incidental vocabulary learning. There are lots
of “clues” that help to guess the meaning of the words (illustrations,
pictures, captions, titles).
In foreign language
teaching methodology, it is proposed to use the method of game. It is quite
interesting and effective in the process of learning foreign languages. This
method can be used at any stage with a specific adaptation for each specific
age. Using this method is intended to create a favorable psychological
atmosphere of communication, and it helps students to see real foreign language
The game is one of
the methods for teaching foreign language; especially it is commonly used for
junior training. With the help of game, it creates a natural communicative game
of interest and activity of children. In addition, the elements of competition
in the game, the desire to win the attention of students mobilize and train
their memory. Games contribute to more successful mastering of new lexical
Games are used for
various purposes: the introduction of a new lexical material, fixing it in
memory of students and developing their speaking skills. Vocabulary games are
- acquaint students
with new words and their combinations;
- train students
to use vocabulary in situations close to the natural environment;
intellectual activities of students;
- develop verbal
vocabulary includes several methods .
can use word cards or simple flash cards. The teacher write the definition of
the words, a sentence containing this word, its synonyms, pronunciation on one
side of the card and the word on the other. This is the most successful method
of learning new words. Students can carry their new vocabulary around with them
to look at whenever they have the opportunity.
development of lexical skills to some extent, contribute to spelling game. Its
main objective is the development of spelling vocabulary study. Most games can
be used as training exercises.
The purpose of
spelling games is an exercise in writing foreign words. Part of the game is
designed to train students’ memory, while others are based on certain
regularities in the spelling of words. Most games can be used to check
association technique is another successful method. The words are stored
together in sentences and phrases.
include cards with pictures and diagrams. In this way, words are remembered by
their color or position on a page or their association with other words,
pictures or phrases.
not less important. The key word should be written on the blackboard and the
new vocabulary relating to it can be written around it. This method helps to
keep students interested.
So that to check
students’ understanding of new vocabulary teacher may ask them to match new
words from one column with definitions from another column. Sometimes teacher
can mix the definition. It helps to check if students understand the meaning of
Knowing a word
does not just know its meaning but knowing the context, this word is used.
Students should know where to use new words. Also students are to know some
hidden implications that can be connected with the word. Idioms are frequently
spread. Idioms are common features of every day language and are an important
step in language learning. They can be introduced through authentic reading
materials. Learning collocations are also important. They can be grammatical
and lexical. Grammatical collocations are when a noun, verb or adjective occur
alongside a preposition. Lexical collocations consist of combinations of
lexical items. Lexical phrases are good for teachers to include in lessons as
another way of improving the natural sound .
When reading the
text it is necessary to get to know the word and to understand its meaning.
While speaking students need to recall every word automatically, quickly and
combine it with other words.
It is something more
than knowledge of words, it is possession of them. It is based on the lexical
skills. We must always remember that the desired goal should be to own the
words, not their knowledge. Therefore, we should have such a number of words,
no matter to what type of speech activities these words are necessary.
may have different meanings. The meaning of the word depends on the context,
prefixes and suffixes. Teaching the prefixes and suffixes can help students to
understand the meaning of a word. Prefixes and suffixes can help to introduce
new words easily. Teaching students the common prefixes and suffixes can help
students to improve their vocabulary by recognizing these other derived words.
is the basic tool for communication and knowledge. It enables people to send
information to others, to interpret facts, opinions and views, and to express
ourselves. Vocabulary is a collection of words and phrases in language.
Teaching vocabulary to students so that they have large, expansive word
knowledge and then understand the meaning behind the words, enables them to
effectively express themselves clearly and in detail. Knowing and understanding
a vast collection of words, where they fit and how they function in sentence
structure is vitally important.
П.Я. Современная методика английского языка. – М.: Просвещение, 1995.
Frisby A.W. (1957), "Teaching English", The English Language Book
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Robert Lado (1964), "Language Teaching: A Scientific Approach",
McGraw Hill: New York.
А.В. Игровой метод в обучении иностранному языку. – СПб., 2006.
В.И. Методика обучения иностранному языку в начальной школе. – М.: Просвещение,
Е.Н. Методика обучения иностранным языкам. Базовый курс. – М.: Просвещение,
Н.В. Методика английского языка. – М.: Просвещение, 1999.
К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2012