К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №5 - 2010
Автор: Дьячук Анна Анатольевна
Time concept is
one of the basic concepts when any ontology is built. The idea of the world
that appears on different stages of thought development also defines the peculiarities
of time comprehension reflected in psychic experiences. Time is divided into
lots of ones and first of all into objective and subjective times as the
attributes of matter or as cogitative forms. Time can't be comprehended just as
physical or mathematical time. In various areas of knowledge it is defined as
division, measure, resource, value, object of knowledge and in connection with
history it is defined as movement, space and the activity deployment context.
From these positions of consideration time is an object which doesn't
characterize personal experiences concerning something that the person defines
as time. The question on time experience by person was brought up by
phenomenologists F. Brentano and, first of all E. Husserl. The main idea in
subjective time comprehension (personal time) is now not comprehension of what
the time is but how it is perceived by person and how the time consciousness
appears. All mentioned above leads to the discussion of consciousness
structures which organize time experience.
science traditional researches of time experiences are connected with two main
tendencies. On the one hand time is regarded as the reflection of subjective
time and its certain physical properties. All above is reflected in researches
of psychophysiological and neurophysiological time reflection basic foundations
(N.D. Bagrova, N.N. Bragina, T.A. Dobrohotova, E.Geron, M.Y. Zabrodin, H.
Ehrenwald, S. Sherwood), researches of time perception peculiarities (N.I.
Moiseeva, D.G. Elkin, E.N. Sokolov, J. Piaget, A. Pieron) and researches of
time intervals estimation (F. Donders, W. Wundt, B.I. Zhukanov, P. Fraisse).
Discussing time we define the factors which lead to distortion in objective
time perception, feeling and experience. From a position of the given approach
time is considered as mathematical measure, scale that is used by person to
describe fluidity of psychic processes. Yet some new properties of time
different to those of subjective, physical time were defined. They are: time
reversibility, time inversions, time irregularity, etc. And that's why the
question on nature of time was brought up.
To describe such
personal time secrets some conceptions of subjectively experienced time which
exists independently from physical one and can be defined as time of psyche
itself appeared at the end of XIX century. The relational approach to
comprehension of time took off psychological time “appearing” (S.L.
Rubinshtein) and made it possible to consider its properties through the
objects and processes of the system (Abul'khanova, 2009). Starting with M.I.
Sechenov they started to consider time as a necessary characteristic of psychic
power existence (L.M. Vekker, T.N. Beresina, L.P. Grimak, J. Kafka, P. Janet
and others). Also the trends which pose the problem of subjective time in the
context of personal development such as motivation, dynamics of perceived and
unconscious, studying course of life and its specific temporal, biographical,
eventful characteristics, plans for life, numerous researches of time
prospective in conditions of activity implementation and communication, etc.
appeared. In spite of the numerous researches of psychological time aspects
consciousness of time is substituted for different time representations in consciousness.
psychological time we need to distinguish time as a subject and time experience,
which don't coincide and thus the comprehension of time peculiarities in person's
consciousness through analysis of time as an object is impossible. So there is
a necessity to study time not as psychic or matter properties or objective time
reflection in senses and experiences but perception and comprehension of
something the person qualifies as “time”.
Point of view
Time in its real
and possible forms appears in consciousness when consciousness is directed to
time. To comprehend this thesis we refer to the ideas about consciousness intentionality
by F. Brentano and E. Husserl: the thing doesn't exist when consciousness is
not directed to it, but when consciousness directedness to the thing appears,
the thing itself, the idea of it and its form come into being for every
personality (Husserl, 1969). Time appears in consciousness in those situations
when there is a necessity of defining something that should be completed in
time. This appearance is connected with different psychic experiences
(thinking, sensation, emotion) in which time appears to the personality because
it is perceived by it in any way. Time as we comprehend it doesn't exist
without some relations with experiences the personality has.
Experience is a
complete act which includes something that is being experienced and
consciousness itself into the complete structure. But if consciousness wasn't
organized in a proper way we wouldn't be able to experience time. The structure
of our consciousness “allows” us to experience the invisible reality that is
time. Following I.Kant we consider time as a form of consciousness which is the
condition of world perception and phenomena representation in consciousness.
Form defines the fact that lots of things are perceived as complete unity in
specific content. Referring to M.K. Mamardashvily, “form is something that was
sticked together into some irreversible integrity... something firm, present
and relatively constant in human socially-historical life, something invisible
that is opposed to unsteadiness and stored” (Mamardashvili, 2002, p.144).
The ways of time
perception in experience remain in language and culture as traces , they are
“put” on individual consciousness by means of activity. The person uses
different language notions of time not always reflecting his own time
experiences. He uses linguistic turns, which are better represented in social
relationships (for example – time is money). If we ask the person what time is,
his answer will hardly deal with time experience. The comprehension of time
experience peculiarity by the person is possible in situations that require
self-determination regarding time from the person, when determination of
psychological mechanisms is possible and so experience, time content and the
organization of human activity in different situations are formed.
We define time
transspective as time structure, temporal gestalt that defines the ways of
structuralization of life time, activity and sense of time by the personality
as such mechanisms.
The term “time
transspective” was suggested by V.I. Kovalyov in the context of conception of
time personal organization as specific activity connection, that structures
different time intervals of past, present or future personal life in optimal
time-personal formations. Such relation integrates past and future and becomes
the basis of creative-converting act (Kovalyov, 1998). This term covers different
aspects of time representation in the person's consciousness that's why modern
researchers replace the term time prospective suggested before by this term to
reflect not only person's conception of future but also his ways of
constructing past and present (L.V. Borozdina, I.A. Spiridonova, I.V. Dubrovina
In our researches
we consider time transspective as the psychological mechanism of integration,
tempo-rhythmical characteristics of processes on different levels of organization
retention, definite stable connections of activity functional space creation.
This mechanism is reflected in perception, time experience, motivational
tendencies, ideas and attitude towards time (giving value to time). As a
gestalt time transspective specifies the integrated representation in time
realization and also the situations which deal with time experience and
experiences connected with time as a symbol of reality which defines this
reality content formed in time. So to say the person is inside this time
structure, that self-organizes separate acts of different rhythms and cycles
co-ordination, dynamical peculiarities of processes which take place in
activity space and instantaneous fixity of event organized as this structure.
showed that there is a definite hierarchy structure (that means it has
different levels) of consciousness. This structure can be defined when planning
and realizing activity as a time object take place. So we considered
strategical activity as such activity. It demands to solve the problem of psychological
“harmonization of times” and various phenomena in integrity.
Materials and Methods
procedure of empirical study pointed to definite the relation between temporal
pattern and strategic activity. Single-factor analysis method was chosen for
the basis of research scheme formation. This scheme allows to constrict the
numbers of influence conditions and to mark the most important of them. We can
speak about the influence of the factor (temporal gestalt) on the feature
(strategic activity) only if the factor has not less then 3 gradations, because
it allows to determine nonlinear dependence.
can be measure through successful activity acquirement characteristic. It's
essential to mark qualities, which are important for such an activity. During
theoretical analysis we have detached opportuneness, activity,
mobility(flexibility), constructiveness ( situation gestalt formation with the
shortage of information). Thereby, these qualities must be regarded in the
ratio, as interrelated. These qualities correlation can become the criterion
for description of qualitative and original realization of strategic activity.
This pilot study allowed to mark the technique for these qualities measuring.
We used graphic scaling method by analogy with Dembo-Rubinshtain methodology,
which is simple in practice and has no numerical scale of evaluations.
Subjective judgments were compared with experts estimations, who made their
estimations about quality intensity among test persons. Experts estimations
were independently held from each other. It allowed to evener subjective
factors, affecting on estimate, and to get objective results.
temporal structure was based on temporal experience description, as well as
oneself activity regulation on the ground of such experience. The first
characteristic was measured with the help of «Temporal experience scale» by
E.I. Golovaha, A.A. Kronic, forming by the semantic differential type. We chose
this methodology, because psycho-semantic methods help to see world view from
the other person position, find out individual system of values and meanings.
Predetermined outcome of estimate criterias allows to correlate test persons
descriptions and to match them. On the other hand, this methodology doesn't
allow to elicit linguistic form, which person uses to explain his or her
For this problem
solution, it was suggested to give associations and pictures of the word
«time». Time regulation investigated with the help of questionnaire and
interview with test persons, the main aim of which was obtaining information
about the success of task achievement on term, the scope of unsolved problems,
method and meaning of the planning. During the processing it was important for
us not only detachment of one or another experience representation and regulation
method, but also reference one to another.
phenomenons were acted as multidimensional, multiparameter, having different
connections between measured data. On the other hand it was reasonable for us
to determine not quantity, but quality characteristics of examined phenomenons.
However, quality differences definition supposes criteria allocation and it was
rather difficult. It's especially important in temporal gestalt criteria
allocation as the basis for levels (gradations) allocation in chosen scheme. Gradations
definition and description, indicating the real measured data correlation and
distribution, have become one of the research problem.
69 persons took
part in the research (47 men and 22 women) at the age of 32-57, commercial
organization and education institutes directors.
Searching of the
given criterias was done by cluster analysis. This technique represents mathematical
method of data grouping by classes (clusters) in order to define a similar
objects group, belonging to one class, homogenous in any features in comparison
with the objects, incorporating in other classes when certain criterias are
On the first stage
test persons were divided into groups (classes) according to different
characteristic profiles of temporary structure using clustering middle
K-method. By means of this method we could define an exact amount of
K-clusters, the amount of clusters needed to researcher, arranged in the
distance from each other. As a result we have clusters with minimized
variability inside them, and maximized variability among clusters(for this task
solution the statistics device STATISTICA v. 6.0 was used). We decided to
distinguish three clusters, since the variability of the phenomenon and
dependence type definition are possible in this case, and in order to the
clusters contain enough objects for examination of obtained result as
nonrandom. Divided according to their temporal experience into three groups
test persons were considered as factor levels.
quantity data definition was done by allocation of structures with the help of
close neighbor merging method, that connects similar characteristics and could
be displayed in hierarchical tree with various branches called dendrogram.
We repeated this procedure
for allocation of strategic action quality peculiarities. Three groups were
allocated by the means of clustering middle K method. Quality correlation
between criterias for each group were obtained by hierarchical cluster
by strategic action and temporal structure groups were correlated with the help
of conjugacy table and the statistical estimate of obtained relations
significance was done by χ2 Pearson criteria (χ2
=10,12, p<0,05). This procedure allows to distinguish statistically
significant, nonrandom correlation among temporal experience and strategic action.
Results and Discussion
The analysis of gotten
results showed the typical forms of time perception and experience, the ways of
self-organization in time, attitude towards time, time abilities which are
stable and can be reproduced.
The first group
peculiarities of temporal experience are connected with a sense of time in the
situation of sequence reconstruction and timetable of events. The order sets
integrity, even though time experiences as something disunited, discrete and
uneven. The concentration of attention and efforts on exact tasks bring to the
fact that the new task perceives as unexpected, but demanding its’ execution,
it leads to disconnection of previous task decision and both impossibility of
sequence building and its’ coherence.
This group can be
characterized by “disappearance” of time as the objective one. The timetable
and sequence of events specifies some illusion of temporality, but also some disunity
of events and their spasmodic character. It is impossible to organize activity
in the situation of substantial uncertainty.
The other group
represents the appearance of time reflection according to solving tasks that
set temporal relations synthesis, duration. Timing starts to comprehend that is
why the activity regulation happens rather effectively during the goal setting.
In the situation when aims are removed in time perspective, the time itself
charges as extended and it disorganizes, doesn’t allow regulate somebody’s
resources in the situation when future results are not defined.
reflexion as united experience of different senses and perceptions appears;
subject activity as the objectness for me is constructed. All above leads to
changeability of time horizon in dependance on the emerging challenges. If
there is a deadline of carrying work out, the sense “work isn't mine, time
isn't mine too” appears to the designated period of time.
For the third
group time is experienced as continuous-discontinuous, connected with
apportionment of general through the reflection. Getting to the oversituational
position is connected with understanding of situation uniqueness, not
determined by previous course of events development, its untypicalness as
unique combination of different conditions, resources and potential variants of
reality development, determining the value of the situation itself. It is
noticed to experience opportuneness.
This group is
defined by the value of the moment (situation) as having the possibilities of
person's self-realization, definite aims of development achievement,
timeliness. Different modifications of past and future combinations in actual
present appear on this level. Time is experienced as continuous-noncontinuous
and connected with defining general one by using of phenomenological reflexion.
Oversituational position is connected with situational uniqueness comprehension.
This situation is nondeterminated by the previous course of events, is also
untypical as unique combination of different conditions, resources and
prospective modifications of reality development that determine the value of
received groups with strategical activity peculiarities showed the following.
For the first
group (in considerable degree the first type of temporal experiences represented) is characterized by the disorganization of action with the work realization
on time necessity, difficulties in activity organization of events forcing
progress, when activity has more situational character. Decision making occurs
while defining results of situation development and action algorithm, leading
to this decision.
The second type of
experience correlates to the following strategical action peculiarities: the
ability of events forcing progress, when the logic is clear, delay in
opportunity usage, activity proceeds only when the developing image integrity
occurs, disability to distribute the situation resources, when the future
results are not defined. “Insensibility” to the weak signals, disability to
build up the future image in situation with a lack of information, difficulties
in decision making with the independent determination of boundaries and forms
for realization of necessary activity in the situation, when aims and future
results are indefinite. The third type of experience occurs attitude towards
the situation as independent from previous, unlike, untypical, but included in
unique action structure. Actions form future situation itself. Decision
realization defines by the action conditions and individual opportunities
transformation in plan of real action towards the aims.
of activity in the plan of real action for subjective and organizationally
acceptable results achievement.
characteristics are also repeated in further researches. They are stable and reproductible
on different samples and that allows to speak about certain form, general arrangement
which its separate components are depend on.
The analysis of
results shows that activity planning appears in correlation with definite basis
of time construction that forms a special generality. Such arrangement allows
to perceive something that can't be perceived visually. And this is time. This
structure defines the way the person comprehends time. Time structures
characterize different organization of consciousness. Defining different types
of consciousness organization we should also discuss different time forms.
Discussing strategical activity we have assumed that there's such type of consciousness
that was identified as strategical consciousness and specially for it, as we
assume, another form different from others exists.
Thus, the studying
of psychic structures that appear in psychic acts of consciousness and specify
time content will allow to describe psychological mechanisms which define the
time peculiarities of the personality. The time forms differentiation is
directed to comprehension of time experiences and their contain, situations
which they appear in.
K.A. Abul'khanova, “Consciousness as Person's Vital Ability”, Psikhologicheskii
Zhurnal, 1 (2009), 32-43, in Russian.
2. A. A. Dyachuk, Time transspective as psychological
mechanism of chief's strategical activity. (Krasnoyarsk: Abstract... Candidate
of Psychological sciences, 2005), in Russian.
V.I. Kovalyov, “The category of time in psychology (personal aspect)”, The
categories of materialistic dialectics in psychology. (Moscow: Science, 1998), 216-230, in Russian.
E. Husserl, Zur Phaenomenologie des Inneren Zeitbewusstseins: Husserliana. (Den Haag, 1969, Bd.X).
5. M.K. Mamardashvili, Lectures on ancient
philosophy. (Moscow: Agraf,
2002), in Russian.
К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №5 - 2010