К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2010
Автор: Иващенко Светлана Анатольевна
Technology is just a tool. In
terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is
the most important.
Nowadays it is hard to imagine our society
without computers and the Internet. It has become a usual thing to have a
computer at home and at school.
Information technology is everywhere, and
it is certainly changing our world. The technology is connecting people from
throughout the world. The technology has provided a new and powerful tool, and
people throughout the world face the task of learning to use this tool.
Information technology is a new medium, a
new way of representing, communicating, and working with information. Information
technology is both an important area of study in its own right and also a tool
that is being integrated into the everyday lives of more and more people. The
technology has provided a new and powerful tool, and people throughout the
world face the task of learning to use this tool.
Much of the pressure for integrating information
technology use in schools is coming from outside the school system. Parents,
politicians, and business people are making the observation that computers are
routinely used outside of schools, and asking why they are not more routinely
used in schools.
To date, however, the impact of information
technology on our educational system has been minimal. It isn't that our
schools don't have computers and other information technology facilities.
Rather, they don't have enough, and much of what they do have is not used to
their advantage. Students and teachers lack basic information technology
knowledge and skills. The curriculum, instruction, and assessment do not
adequately make use of the capabilities of today's networked information
Literacy in Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT) is fundamental to life in our modern technological society.
To equip students to be literate lifelong learners and global citizens of the
21st century we must successfully integrate ICT into both the English
curriculum and English pedagogical practice.
ICT is a valuable tool to enhance teaching
and learning. For teachers ICT is a professional resource, a mode of classroom
delivery, and a source of valid and valuable text types. For students, ICT
provides opportunities to communicate more effectively and to develop literacy
skills including skills in critical literacy. It is a valuable tool for
researching, composing and responding, and viewing and representing in English.
However, if all students are to have the
opportunity to develop ICT skills and achieve English syllabus outcomes, issues
of equity and access to technology must be addressed.
Information and Communication Technologies
(ICT) content in English enables students to develop and apply skills,
knowledge and understanding of ICT in their composing, responding and
presenting, and as part of the imaginative and critical thinking they undertake
in English. The ICT content is incorporated into the content of teaching to
ensure that all students have the opportunity to become competent,
discriminating and creative users of ICT.
In their study of English, students are
able to apply their existing knowledge of word processing, multimedia, ways of
formatting and presenting texts, simulation software, graphics and electronic
communication and further develop their skills, knowledge and understanding of
these technologies. They learn about the ethics of information communication
The manner in which ICT was embedded into
the English syllabus in its final stage has been controversial with many
believing that if ICT is to be genuinely embedded across the curriculum then
the outcomes and competencies should be generated as a natural part of the
syllabus development process rather than inserted in the final stages of
syllabus development. However despite these criticisms of the process and
concerns about equity and access, there can be no doubt about the importance of
ICTs in English.
ICT can act as a mode of classroom delivery.
Students encounter ICT in many areas of their lives and it is essential that we
provide them with opportunities to explore the technology and encourage them to
use it as a learning tool.
However it is important that teachers avoid
the trap of using technology for the sake of it, or in order to check the
technology box on their faculty registration sheet, or as an add-on to a
It is indicated that to implement ICT
successfully in their classrooms teachers must understand what visual literacy
is and rethink what learning to read and write means in the 21st century.
ICT is most effective when embedded in the
curriculum, and integrated into units of work. English teachers can maximize
the impact of ICT in their classrooms by ensuring that they and their students
use ICT as an integral part of lessons, present ideas dynamically, and use a
range of media. ICT should be integrated in such a way as to require purposeful
application and meaningful engagement with the technology. For example, while
pupils are using a desk top publishing package to create a school newspaper
they are also developing their ability to communicate more effectively. This
provides both a context and a meaning for the ICT activity. Taking the IT out
of context and teaching IT skills separately, not only decontextualises ICT but
also places additional burdens on curriculum time. The use of ICT therefore
should be a meaningful part of an activity where it is used to consolidate or
extend pupils' learning. To implement ICT successfully in their classrooms
teachers also need to:
- identify how ICT can be used to meet
specific objectives within the English curriculum to improve pupils’
- understand that successful use of ICT
depends on other factors such as pupils’ work in the classroom away from the
computer, discussions between pupils and between pupils and their teacher, and
the ways in which pupils interact with each other at the computer.
ICT must meet student needs. Because of its
interactive and dynamic nature, ICT has the potential to meet the needs of
individual students by providing opportunities to direct their learning and to
pursue information, or complete tasks, in ways which meet their own interests
In particular the integration of technology
into the English classroom represents a paradigm shift to acknowledge the
importance of the emerging technological learning style which is increasingly
becoming the fourth learning modality for students of the click and go generation.
These technological learners:
- are mechanically oriented;
- know how to use technological tools
without formal instruction;
- enjoy using a video camera;
- obtain much of their information electronically;
- like integrated learning activities;
- would like to learn everything via a
- spend much of their time on the computer
or playing video games;
- know how to work with and use new
software and hardware;
- interact and communicate with others via
e-mail and/ or the internet;
- understand how to integrate various
Using ICT enables English teachers to tap
into this learning style and the dominant youth culture. Many modern ICT texts
can also be used as a starting point for the exploration of traditional texts.
For example, an interactive site such as the virtual tour of the Globe Theatre
site allows us to bring Shakespeare’s world to life.
Using ICT as a classroom tool has many
other benefits because ICT:
- provides highly motivational activities
for students. Initially computer-based activities can provide stimulus to
undertake tasks that students may otherwise avoid;
- links to other learning and to real-world
situations and experiences that reflect gender and cultural diversity;
- increases opportunities for student interaction
and decision making. This interactive process has the potential to cater for
individual learning styles;
- makes complex tasks more manageable in
some cases these activities require the development of new skills;
- makes repetitive tasks more interesting;
- illustrates complex processes or concepts;
- provides access to resources, increases
the need for students to develop critical thinking and effective information
ICT also enables a representation of
language as a symbolic system. Furthermore the use of well-designed ICT
environments can help pupils grasp abstract concepts such as imagery, literary
relations, and morphology.
ICT has many benefits for the classroom
teacher. Presentation software usage enables teachers to show ideas
dynamically, and deliver content effectively. For example, CD-ROMs make vivid
multimedia worlds available and store large amounts of information that
teachers suddenly have at their fingertips.
Most importantly however, the use of ICTs
in the classroom signals a shift from the conventional position of power held
by the teacher to a more collaborative approach to learning. Generally computer
based activities allow the teacher to assume the role of facilitator whilst
students take on an increasing responsibility for their own learning The use of
computer-based technologies can shift the emphasis of activities away from the
teacher and towards the students, enhance social interaction, and be empowering
especially for students with low traditional literacy skills.
The use of ICT in the English classroom
extends beyond its motivational value to address key outcomes of the syllabus,
and allow students to become competent users as well as consumers in English.
Teachers can use a range of teaching tools
such as discussion boards, forums, email, raps, web quests, video and digital
photography, e-movies, and even mobile phones as tools for delivery of class
program. This opens reciprocal dialogue between members of the class community
and may be extended to the school community at large.
Incorporating ICT into the English curriculum
- improve writing and reading skills;
- develop speaking and listening skills;
- support collaboration, creativity, independent
learning and reflection.
As an interactive and collaborative medium,
ICT allows responding, composing, and publication to be easily shared and
offers students the opportunity to explore the language of texts more
creatively and develop as speakers, writers and readers for an ever widening
range of purposes and audiences.
ICT can enable students to:
- access information and respond to a
widening range of texts;
- organize and present information in a
variety of forms;
- broaden the range of audiences for their
- compose a widening range of texts for a broad
range of purposes;
- compose for real audiences. ICT can
support them in their choice of genre for audience and purpose;
- identify key characteristics and features
- develop understanding of language and
Using ICT changes the nature of composing
and allows the writing process to become more fluid.
Students creating both traditional and
multimodal texts using ICT will often attend to the visual and spatial
qualities of text creation early in the design process as in selecting fonts,
templates or choosing images.
ICT enables students to organize and
present information in a variety of forms and compose their own work more
easily and professionally. Word-processing software allows them to access tools
professional editors use, and to manipulate text in ways that previously were
difficult or unmanageable. Using such tools allows students to reflect and
self-edit and encourages them to conference on screen and respond critically to
other students' writing. Presentation software such as PowerPoint provides
useful tools for performance, creates a more fluid environment for
communicating a message, and elevates a speech to a more filmic medium.
ICT provides the tools for composing and
publishing a range of both conventional and multi-media texts so that students
read, compose, and transform texts in novel and challenging ways. Production of
texts might include e-mailing for a range of communication purposes, word
processing written responses, designing websites, using desktop publishing
packages and video editing packages, using programs such as Photo story and
Moviemaker, and using animation software packages.
ICT enhances composing in English by
allowing students to:
- plan, draft, revise and edit their own
and others’ writing using a word processor and other desktop publishing
- share and collaborate in the writing
- use hypermedia to write up, lay out and
present their work for publication on the Internet;
- transform different media into one text;
- e-mail for a range of communication
- design websites using informative/
- publish writing in a variety of forms;
- use video editing programs and programs
such as Photo Story , Movie maker and animation software packages;
- integrate digital photography and video
into their texts;
- integrate different media into one text;
- communicate with a wider group of people
in a range of forums (e.g. via e-mail, newsgroups, online conferencing raps)
and hence promote collaborative learning .
ICT in the English curriculum has changed
the nature of texts, the process of reading and responding to texts, and the
ways in which students access texts.
Multi media texts challenge the notion of
the English language and literacy as being about words, sentences and texts
types. The verbal aspect of communication is only part of what is being
communicated in a multi-media text.
In the publication of texts, the Internet
allows publication and collaboration in ways that were previously closed, or
too expensive or time-consuming.
Reading multimedia texts therefore requires
new ways of reading and new reading skills. These include the ability to read
images, icons, hyperlinks, formatting conventions and site maps.
ICT also enhances responding by allowing
students to compare the way information is presented in a range of texts;
identify and engage with the key characteristics and features of text types;
discuss the merits and limitations of particular text types; evaluate the
validity, accessibility and relevance of information sources and investigate
ways in which reading strategies are adapted to suit different texts.
Increasingly ICT provides a forum for
student discussion, with sites such as book rap which allows students to
respond to a range of texts on sites which in themselves are valid and valuable
In order to fully understand the place of
technology and ICT based texts in the English curriculum, it is necessary to
examine the ways in which the new technologies have redefined literacy and to
understand the implications of this for English pedagogy.
Literacy is now understood as being far
more complex than coding and decoding written texts. Its definition has
expanded from traditional notions of reading and writing to include the
capacity to read and write multimodal texts and to understand what is entailed
in their operation, reception, and production.
A syllabus now focuses on many forms of
literacy (writing/reading, speaking/ listening, viewing /representing) and the
syllabus rationale outlines the role of ICT as follows:
They (students) become imaginative and
confident users of information and communication technologies, understanding
their impact on society. These skills allow them to develop their control of
language in ways that will help them in lifelong learning, in their careers and
Whilst the traditional literacy skills will
continue to be the basis of our English curriculum, the influence of technology
means that we must continuously review our notion of what it means to be
literate in the 21st century where our students have already developed
technological literacies such as mobile phone technology and text messaging
which operate according to a very different dynamic from those established in
conventional educational practices.
If we are to succeed in this and produce
students who contribute critically and responsibly to a changing society, then
we must take into account the complex ways in which information and
communication technologies are influencing and changing literacy practice. This
requires a broader definition of literacy to encompass the literary practices
associated with the screen based technologies. Such literacy is concerned with
understanding how the different modalities are combined in complex ways to
IT is a tool to make teaching effective and
attractive. However, the teachers shouldn’t let it dominate in the classroom, because
it’s just a tool to make technology work for the teaching and learning process.
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К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2010