The condition of
axiological adequacy for professional pedagogical education is its
humanitarization. One of the most prominent functions of higher pedagogical
school today is referred to the formation of value and sense development of
students' personality, activation of their personal functions, i.e.
selectiveness, notional creativity, reflection, self-realization; capabilities
development that allow the future participants of the educational process to
find the universal senses. This requires changes in approaches to planning the
education content, transformation of methods for pedagogical knowledge representation,
transfer from discursive academician delivery of educational content to
formation of a «living» knowledge in the process of the students' professional
training. Pedagogical knowledge as the foundation of a theoretical competence
of the future teacher shall be considered by the latter as the humanitarian,
dialogical, two-subject knowledge bearing a certain sense. «The sense is always
responding some questions. Something that does not respond to anything is
perceived by us as something senseless, taken out of the dialogue» [3, p.370].
Today, one can find a lot of references to the ideas expressed by M.M. Bakhtin
regarding the nature of humanitarian knowledge and germs for humanitarian
thought, however, in the system of pedagogical knowledge this is not yet
vividly reflected. «Special two-sidedness and two-subjectiveness of the
humanitarian mentality», of which M.M. Bakhtin was writing, shall be the
subject of special care from the part of the lecturers of psychological and
point out that today, the pedagogical knowledge is mostly being developed in
accordance with the natural science sample remaining in the context of
technical and cognition culture (N.N. Nikitina, Yu.V. Senko, M.N. Frolovskaya
and etc). It is proposed to the students who in their major part have neither
professional experience nor experience of own parent relations acting as a
monological knowledge, as the one which is «silent», detached from a child,
problems of its development and from reality. Plenitude of ideal essences,
theoretical structures of different nature creates an obstacle between a
knowledge and a person perceiving the latter. The value nature of such a
knowledge is sometimes difficult to perceive. Most superficial analysis of the
educational books in Pedagogic persuades that the pedagogical knowledge is
strictly rational (these are numerous notions, terms, principles, ideas,
regulations, theories, concepts, systems, regularities and etc). This knowledge
that is fat from a human being, from a child, the one that is deeply reasonable
and sometimes even theoretic and schematic is not able to reveal involvement
with deep spiritual processes we are discussing herein as well as not able to
evoke personal attitude even with those who have found their vocation in the
pedagogical profession. Not even doubting the value of scientific and
theoretical knowledge in the pedagogical education we remark that they can be
and must be added with other form s of knowledge that are described in the modern
problems activate the lecturer's search for conditions and means to overcome
value neutral in the students' cognition of pedagogical facts, processes,
phenomena, relations and events. Notwithstanding the active search for solution
of the problem it is far from final resolution as yet. This is why we consider
the strive of the pedagogical disciplines lecturers to look for new
possibilities with the purpose to form with a future specialist personal and
value and sense relation to the knowledge a very important one.
The Pedagogics and
pedagogical psychology discuss the possibilities for emphasizing value and
sense aspects of students' educational and professional activity that are
referred to renewal and enrichment of psychological and pedagogical disciplines
content as well as to the changes in means of its development (Ye.I. Isayev,
I.A. Kolesnikova, S.V. Pazukhina, Yu.V. Senko and etc). It is worth mentioning
that in the light of modern trends, the relation towards the pedagogical
knowledge as the basic and actually the single component of the education
content is experiencing changes. The idea that the pedagogical education
content is not limited to subject and cognitive experience, i.e. knowledge
itself, but contains components that are isomorphic to basic cultural
components and are invariant to types of activities, including
personality developing components is pacing up in the development. Researchers
(A.V. Zelentsova, I.A. Kolesnikova, V.V. Serikov, Yu.V. Senko, M.N. Frolovskaya
and etc) remark that in the definition of the essence for pedagogical education
content a greater importance is gained by a human being – his experience,
feelings, values and senses, while the knowledge provides his personal and
professional development performing the role of a mean.
ideas regarding the educational content, including the pedagogical education,
is reflected in the works of N.F. Golovanova, I.K. Zhuravlev, L.M. Perminova
and etc and is mostly related to necessity to introduce specific personality
development components into the education content. Thus, authors of «Prognostic
concept of educational goals and content» (Yu.B. Aliev, V.G. Bogin, I.K.
Zhuravlev, L.Ya. Zorin, I.Ya. Lerner, Ye.I. Lerner) call reflection as such
method , L.M. Perminova calls reflective relation to the world , N.F.
Golovanova – social experience of students .
considers personal experience of a lecturer and students as an essential
characteristic and component of education in the conditions of value and
personality and sense orientation of the education. The researcher proved that
new formations in different spheres of a scholar’s or student's
personality are not directly related to the objective content of the
studied disciplines and subject-related activity of the students that is
adequate to this content but are mediated by complex processes of sense
formation, gaining experience of independent decisions, taking the
responsibility, reflecting one's life activity, and that is perceived by the
author as a personal experience of the individual . This type of experience
is differentiated from the «impersonal» social and generic experience, e.g.
fixed in the notions of science by the fact that it is integral with its
carrier and cannot be fixed in any impersonal forms and acts as a subjective
(individual, personal) experience of a human being [24; ñ.10].
The attempt to
revise the education content taking into consideration the human being was
developed within the framework of philosophical and anthological approach.
Thus, L.M. Luzina specifies the epistemological and anthological aspects of
pedagogical knowledge. The author is reasonably remarking that while
considering the essence of pedagogical events and processes the reference to
scientific knowledge regarding general regularities and principles of
pedagogical cooperation of the educational process participants is widely
observed. Therefore, the epistemological aspect of pedagogical knowledge
development is realized. Not denying the value of scientifically explained,
epistemological knowledge, L.M. Luzina proposes to add it with
anthological, genesis-related knowledge orienting to consider the
participants, subjects of a pedagogical process in the context of their genesis
It is worth
mentioning that while researching the problem of education content, including
the pedagogical education, the subject of specialized analysis conducted by a
number of researchers were the issues of a structure and formation of
pedagogical knowledge. For example, American philosopher, the founder of a
pragmatism pedagogical concept, John Dewey, distinguished between three types
of knowledge: objective, experience-oriented and sense-generating. The
objective knowledge, or «knowledge itself», is actually little changeable and
stable. Experience-oriented knowledge referring to the methods of activity
performs the normative function in relation to this or that system of activity.
The sense-generating knowledge as a special type of knowledge allows us to
search and find the essence of specific human acts, cultural texts, phenomena
of reality and etc.
A number of
researchers discussing the problem of education content differentiate between
«living» and «dead, fixed» knowledge (V.P. Zinchenko, Yu.V. Senko, S.L. Frank
and others). S.L. Frank characterizes living knowledge as knowledge acquired in
the process of understanding related to the subject's plunging into the object
as well as with sympathizing experience of an object. The philosopher points
out that living knowledge are possible only subject to internal relation of an
object and a subject . According to V.P. Zinchenko, «living knowledge is
differentiated from the dead of fixed knowledge just by the fact that it cannot
be consumed. It shall be constructed. It shall be constructed in the way a
living image is constructed» [8; p.22]. In the process of such knowledge
construction the latter combines the value and sense that is fixed in the human
genesis and that is personal and affectionately coloured.
Yu.V. Senko, the
author of the humanitarian pedagogical education concept, grounds the necessity
to refer to the living knowledge in the process of professional preparation of
future teachers. He emphasizes the impossibility to present the content of
academic subjects of a Psychology and Pedagogics cycle in the form of the
«conceited», sustainable knowledge to the future teachers. In author’s opinion,
this shall lead to a single-directed development of the educational content in
the process of training of a «delivery-perception» type and in the long run to
the disposal of educational process participants from each other and
pedagogical knowledge that is presented in the «impersonal form of generality»
. What is generally named as knowledge acquired in the process of training
is just a specific knowledge of a specialized language (any subject area of
cognition develops such a language). Sometimes such knowledge has nothing in
common with a spiritual experience of a studying personality, and detached from
an understanding (sense-formation) it remains an intellectual ballast [19;
In his further
works, Yu.V. Senko expresses the idea that education content is not equal to
the training content. The scientist points out that education content is
autonomous, standard, beyond the personality and was received by someone some
day. In addition, the content of education is personal and is created «here and
now» at a training lesson directly by this teacher and a student; this is the
result of cooperation between the «fixed culture» (content of an education) and
cultures of direct participants of a pedagogical process . In this respect
one of the topical pedagogical problems is the problem of transformation of the
educational content («dead» knowledge, «fixed culture» fragment) into the
training content («living» knowledge, biased, personal), the problem of
transformation of the education content «from the impersonal form of generity»
into a personal pedagogical culture of a future teacher.
In the most general
sense on the basis of the abovementioned it is possible to formulate the
sufficient for us conclusion regarding the fact that the development of value
and sense formations in the students' personality as well as actualization of
their personal functions can be assisted not by any content or pedagogical
knowledge; and that personally valuable can be those pedagogical knowledge,
values, ways of activity and etc that are not taken for granted and are not
perceived on the level of their definitions but are researched by the students
themselves with the purpose of revealing their personally valuable sense, are
deeply felt and according to which a student shall have one's own opinion. In
this respect a pedagogical process in a higher educational institution
considers it sufficient to uncover not only the definition of this or that
element of the education content but also its senses in the context and in
relation to other elements of social experience, including personal experience
of direct participants of an educational process.
the education content to the given subject and cognition experience, the value
of formation of value and sense relation to the pedagogical knowledge, to be
more precise a»living» knowledge requires employment of specific process means
that set forth the actualization of a valuable potential a pedagogical
knowledge, reflection of values and senses of direct participants of an
educational process, inclusion of their subject experience into the context of
definite pedagogical cooperation.
The course of
Pedagogics potentially contains a wide range for personal self-determination of
a student in the values of professional and pedagogical activity. The
pedagogical knowledge accumulates spiritual, moral and pedagogical values
themselves alongside with the axiological universals. A considerable potential
of this discipline in the development of students' values sphere shall be
defined by its vivid philosophic and pedagogical, ideological orientation,
covering methodological problems, direct inclusion of a number of issues into
the modern situation in the education, relevancy of the course topics to the
tasks of personal and valuable self-determination of students. However,
this values potential exists implicitly, not obviously.
the subject content of the course that contributes to the value
self-determination of the students, we realized the necessity to change the
methods of Pedagogics course content presentation with the view to provide the
actualization of values potential of pedagogical knowledge and enhance the
values and sense components in pedagogical disciplines content. In the research
undertaken by us the basic methods for actualization of a values potential of
Pedagogics were axiologization of a content (emphasizing the values of
pedagogical knowledge), problematization of the course content, integration of
scientific and pedagogical knowledge and personal experience of students as
well as personalization of pedagogical knowledge .
considering the aspect oriented at realization of the indicated ways for
actualization of axiological potential in the Pedagogics.
axiologization of the content we expanded and concretized the content of the
course «General grounds of Pedagogics», having included for the discussion the
issues of defining the value grounds of education, basic professional and
pedagogical values, i.e. humanitarian, professional self-development,
self-cognition, enrichment in pedagogical experience; communicative
(subject-to-subject relations, dialogue as the space for Other personality
development and etc), that allow fully and pointed revealing of humanitarian
essence for the pedagogical activity, peculiarities of a professional role,
teacher's position as well as to realize the essence of values in the
professional and pedagogical activity.
In addition, we
took into consideration the fact that humanitarian values are not external as
compared to the pedagogical theory; and their strengthening shall not lead to
the deformation of a pedagogical knowledge, shall not diminish the scientific
level and shall not cause its simplification.
problematization of the Pedagogics course content we grounded our suppositions
on the base that new formations in the values and sense sphere are not directly
related to the objective content of a specific subjectiveness, and are mediated
by complex processes of sense-formation, gaining experience of independent
solutions, reflection of one's activity and etc. In the major part that was
provided by the subject content given in the form of a problem.
problematization of the content was performed by us during both lectures and
seminars. At the first stages, the work at any problem was performed
collectively under the guidance of the lecturer. The initial stage was often
related to revealing the basic problem, main issue and independent search for
the «author's» answer. This search allowed to actualize the value and sense
function of the students. The content given in a problematic form encouraged
them for their own considerations and not to the usual expectation of the ready
information. The setting of a problem as well as formulating the problematic
issue in the beginning of the lecture actualized the usual views of the
first-year students regarding various phenomena of a pedagogical reality,
allowed for the confrontation of a student with a difficulty objected in the
question that had no answer and that required sense searching activity that
initiates his/her internal tension and contributed to the student's obtaining
one's own value position. The lectures were structured in such a way that the
lectures material set forth the specific problematic background, and presenting
of all pedagogical phenomena was conducted in a way of phenomena with such
features as contradiction, problematicness, openness and etc, all this, in our
opinion, oriented the students for individual search for senses in notions,
ideas, approaches and etc.
the problematization of the content at lectures we provided the students with
positions of different pedagogical schools in resolving this or that problem,
thus, illustrating the situation of polemics between different directions of a
Pedagogics as a science. With such an organization the not just the form of
informing but became the media for forming the value set for the dialogue and
personal knowledge and understanding. In our opinion, such an approach
contributed to development of estimation and analytical as well as reflective
capabilities of students and development of their own axiological position.
actualizing the axiological potential of a subject content of the pedagogical
course we employed such a method as integration of scientific pedagogical
knowledge and personal experience of future teachers.
Here we grounded
our supposition on the fact that the value content of the Pedagogics does not
acquire the status of a personal value by itself, but just in case when the
student sees the personal sense in them and opens one's own context in the
proposed texts . In this respect the objective for the lecturer is to touch
upon the student's real problems sphere through these texts, the problems that
are grounded on their personal self-determination and self-realization.
acknowledgement of a subjective experience of future teachers as self-genesis
and self-valuable as well as construction of training impacts with a maximal
ground on the students' available knowledge, settings and values in the context
of a personally oriented approach is principally important (A.V. Zelentsova,
M.V. Klarin and others).
In the framework of
a traditional education it was very frequent when the personal experience was
not taken into account together with the practical requirements, needs,
interests values of the students as well as no connection was made between the
knowledge acquired and life plans and professional activity of the future
specialists. In the result the pedagogical knowledge containing the most
important values is perceived by the students as something detached and they do
not always realize the importance of the proposed knowledge and values. All
this contributes to formal and impersonal learning of Pedagogics by the
students and does not touch upon their value and sense sphere and further
considerably makes the process of professional development more difficult.
Thus, from the first lesson the active plunge of the students in the activity
of a reflective and sense-formation nature was simulated in the course of
perceiving the subject matter of the discipline so that the students could feel
the anthropological, humanistic nature of the Pedagogics as a science and
sincere professional interest to their personalities, values strives from the
part of the lecturer on the background of traditional interpersonal relations
in the pedagogical higher educational institution when the students being in a
complex emotionally discomfort situation of didactical pressure within
the educational process are perceived one-sided — from the part of their
academic success in the conditions of no demand for personal qualities,
experience, functions and etc.
Moreover, we tried
to construct the pedagogical knowledge itself that includes spiritual,
universal, professional and pedagogical values, as a special, «living»
knowledge (V.P. Zinchenko). To the basic characteristics of a «living»
knowledge the scientists refers its completeness and openness. The «living»
knowledge is always personal and includes not only the knowledge about
something but the knowledge about the subject of the knowledge, i.e. About the
human being itself. «Perceiving and feeling something, V.P. Zinchenko says, –
we simultaneously perceive one selves and through this self-understanding we
... create ourselves» [8; p.33].
In addition, we
took into consideration one of the main peculiarities of the students'
perceiving the Pedagogics that is revealed through the following: starting
learning the latter the students of a pedagogical higher educational
institution have specific knowledge of pedagogical activity and profession,
they have gained experience of cooperation with lecturers of various types,
they have a specific structure of professional and pedagogical values since
they themselves have been participants of an educational process in the
capacity of students and have experience of living through this subject. These
common-life views, general knowledge have been worked out by the students
during all their life, and they contain value and sense, feelings and emotional
attitude towards the objects of pedagogical reality. This knowledge are related
to various tremours of the students and are topical for them, these are always
emotionally «heated» and have a high probability of including them to any their
thought. Therefore, we strove to the situation when scientific pedagogical
knowledge in the framework of the course studies would be given in such a way
that it would include the elements of that «living» knowledge that was formed
by a personal, value-oriented experience of a particular student (A.I. Dontsov
, V.P. Zinchenko , B.Ya. Pukshanskiy ).
available personal experience of students as an important determinant set for
the quality of perceiving «new» valuable content when organizing the subject
content we aimed at reaching the situation when students' discovering new
axiological phenomena and realizing the humanitarian content of values in the
pedagogical activity would be conducted simultaneously with the
reconstruction and reflection of the students' own experience as participants
of educational systems, analysis of own content of valuable characteristics in
the pedagogical activity and perceiving their correlation. With this purpose at
the lectures we stimulated reflective activity of the students who in the
pedagogical knowledge proposed for understanding by the whole audience were to
find out the personally valuable topic directly touching upon their life.
Special attention was paid to the situations when previous experience of the
first-year students was contrasted to the «new» content of professional and
pedagogical values, values of a schooling model for the pedagogical
interrelation did not comply with the set humanitarian values and etc. In this
respect as a result of the lecture we considered the student's formulating a
definite value problem, issue defining the lecture problematic for one
of a subject content as a way of actualizing the axiological potential of the
pedagogical knowledge was directed at the situation of correlating the
students' studying pedagogical theories, concepts, various schools with the
personal and professional position of their authors. This allowed the students
to get assured that various didactical and educational concepts bear the trace
of their author's personality, his/her philosophical position, ideology, values
orientations. Realization of personalization as for the pedagogical knowledge
that makes the subject content of the course allowed to make it more «human»;
Pedagogics ceased to be presented in definitions, summaries, regularities only
but it appeared in the real genesis, in searches, contradictions, specific
events and its focusing on a human being and a child.
various ways for actualization of an axiological potential of a pedagogical
knowledge (axiologization of the content, problematization, integration of
scientific and pedagogical knowledge and personal experience of future teachers
as well as personalization of a pedagogical knowledge) we proved the fact that
the students' performing specific cognitive actions was alongside with the
actualization of their value-oriented function. Employment of the indicated
methods for actualization of an axiological potential of Pedagogics contributed
to the students' being involved into a special type of cognitive activity that
stipulated subject and sense communication, the process for exchanging the
moral values, senses, impressions, feeling and would form with the students the
valuable attitude to pedagogical knowledge, to the child, to professional and
pedagogical activity and oneself as its subject.
S.F. Anisimov. Theory of values in Russian philosophy of the ÕÕth century //
Bulletin of Moscow State University. Philosophy. 1994. No 4.
2. L.M. Arkhangelskiy.
Value orientations and moral development of a personality. Moscow, 1978.
3. M.M. Bakhtin.
Aesthetics of verbal creativity. — Moscow,
V.S. Bibler. From studying science to logics of cultures. – Moscow, 1990.
N.F. Golovanova. Pedagogical foundation of junior student's socialization.
Synopsis of a thesis. …Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences. – St.Petersburg, 1996.
6. A.I. Dontsov, G.M.
Belokrylova. Professional expectations of students-psychologists // Issues of
psychology. – 1999. – No2. – pp.42-49.
N.V. Zelenova. Personal experience in the structure of education content
(theoretical aspect). Synopsis of a thesis. …Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences. –
V.P. Zinchenko. Living knowledge. – Samara, 1997.
V.V. Kraevskiy. Pedagogics on a bookshelf and in the student's copy-book //
Pedagogics. – 2003 – No6. – pp.16-21.
T.M. Luzina. Theory of education: philosophic and anthropological approach. –
Yu.V. Senko, M.N.Frolovskaya. Pedagogics of understanding. – Moscow, 2007.
O.A. Sidorenko Axiological approach in the Russian education // Scientific
annuary of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University. Issue 2. Vol.1. –
Krasnoyarsk, 2001. – pp.182-189.
O.A. Sidorenko. Professional and value orientations and their formation with
the students in the process of their training in the higher educational
institution // Psychology of training. – 2007. No 12. – pp. 62-80.
V.I. Tyupa, Yu.L. Troytskiy. School of communicative didactics and civil
society // Diskurs. 1997. No3/4.
S.L. Frank. The subject of knowledge. Human soul. – Moscow, 2000.
22. G.I. Chizhakova.
Value grounds of professional and pedagogical education // Professional
education in Siberia. – 2000. No 1. – pp. 34-36.
23. I.S. Yakimanskaya. Age and individual peculiarities of students'
image thinking. – Moscow, 1989.