К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №4 - 2009
Автор: Бокжараулы Алтай
institutes’ construction of migratory right is caused by various aspects and
categories of the population’s migration. Being a complex social phenomenon,
migration of the population is investigated by many professionals such as
demographers, economists, geographers, historians, sociologists, lawyers and
political scientists. Specific approaches to the migration analysis, in
particular their definitions and methods of the research, were formed depending
on the purpose and character of the scientific analysis within each branch of
In demographic, sociological and economic
research a broad sense of the concept "migration" designates any
territorial moving of the population irrespective of duration, regularity or a
target direction . Hence, any sort of moving of the population that leads to
its territorial redistribution no matter whether they change a place of living
forever or for a certain time is called migration.
In the narrow sense the term "migration" is used
concerning such form of territorial mobility which at the same time is
responsible for both conditions: first, the population moves from one
settlement to another and, secondly, moving is accompanied by changes of a
constant place of living. At such approach to migration processes they do not
include incidental or seasonal moving (tourist, business, educational) and acts
migration (from a place of residing to a place of work and in the opposite direction).
The specificity of migratory movement as a
subject of the social economic and politic legal analysis lies in
interterritorial character of this phenomenon. If the natural phenomena and
other internal economic processes are self-development of separately taken
society, migration acts as index of influence of different territorially and
socially divided human communities. The process of migration is not only
connected with sharp change in geographical, territorial place of residing, but
also with appropriate society and social, politic legal environment. Individuals
not simply leave their old territorial (geographical) place of residing, but
also leave one society joining a new one that, in turn, causes the necessity of
political and legal regulation of appropriate relations.
Both social economic and political legal
analysis of migration and its classification are realized with the purpose of
revealing the motive forces of movement of the population and motivation of
people who are involved in this process. And, it is used to get an estimation
of influence of the results of migratory processes on demographic development
and labor market transformations, social and economic, and political legal
situation; and also an estimation of development prospects of the migratory
processes forecasting of their future tendencies and appropriate political
As it was mentioned, migration of the population can
be voluntary and forced depending on whether there is a change of constant or
temporary place of residing.
What are the reasons and consequences of migration? Scientific analysis shows that there are
certain objective and subjective factors, which influence migratory moods of
potential migrants. First of all these are two major factors: pushing out
and attracting, which contribute motivations of the departure or force
moving. Migratory motives of potential resettlement are formed under the
influence of certain economic, social, political factors and are basically
connected with a desire of the individual (or a certain group of people) to
improve his/her (or family’s) social status. A wide variety of reasons that
stimulate migratory moods can be grouped according to the following parameters:
economic, political, social and, natural (connected with a state of
In turn, each of
the named blocks has its internal motive forces, which are shown in the table
(see: Table 1).
Table 1. Migration motive forces
||Personal or family possibilities; access to
resources; national and a world policy of labor and economic development.
||War and civil rebellions; infringement of human
rights; reform of the states; governmental policy.
||Family connection; area of migration; educational
possibilities; expansion of the knowledge about other places and cultures; a
racial and ethnic membership; religion.
||Unexpected elements of nature; cataclysms and
danger; accidents; an urbanization and development; the destructions
connected with war.
Migratory processes and migratory streams
differ according to the named reasons. There is no uniform, standard
classification of migration. So there are different methods of approach to
classification of migration types among scientists. Depending on what criterion
is taken as a principle classification there are differentiation schemes of
By its duration migration process is divided
into constant (with resettlement on a constant place of residing) and temporary
(with returning); by legal principles it is divided into legal and illegal. By
the way of realization there are organized and unorganized (individual)
migrations. The former types of migration take place with assistance of the
state, international bodies, and sometimes non-governmental national or
international organizations, welfare funds; the latter are forced and leave
migrants themselves without financial and organizational support of certain establishments.
Criteria of duration and a way of realization can be applied to the classification
of both international and intrastate migratory movement, while criteria of
legality concern only external migrations.
Thus, according to the named reasons and motives of
moving of the population, types of migratory streams and criteria of their
differentiation, nowadays the most widely spread and accepted classification
of migration is the following:
Internal migration which implies population movement processes across the
country is, as a rule, divided in accordance with directions of migratory
Village to village: resettlement of agricultural workers from
one rural region to another. In such countries as India,
Thailand and the majority of the countries of Africa which are still agrarian migrations of «village to village»
Village to city: reasons of resettlement of the population
from countryside to a city district are poverty, low profit in agriculture, low
labor productivity, population growth, ecological difficulties and relative
absence of economic possibilities. According to the United Nations data it is
expected that the next 20 years an urban population of developing countries
will increase to a billion people . Today this type of migration is
considered to be the most widespread form of internal migration in developing
City to city: in general it is migration from one city region to
another for the purpose of employment; it is characteristic of the countries
with a high density of population in urban areas, for example in North America
and Europe. Until today migrations in directions «village – city» and «a city –
a city» have been dominating in the structure of migratory flows in Kazakhstan.
City to village: as a rule, the purpose of this migration
is moving to a new settlement, or it is a reverse migration of those who have
previously moved to a city from village.
External migration (emigration, immigration) is resettlement
of people from one country to another which is characterized by crossing
boundaries. External migration (it is also named international) includes such
concepts as emigration (departure from the country for the purpose of
constant living in another country) and immigration (entrance of
foreigners to the country for extended or constant residing).
The most widespread classification of the
international migration (according to the reasons and consequences of this
phenomenon) consists of six different types of migratory flows :
1) Resettlement with the purpose of
permanent residence - immigrants whose entrance is legally allowed and who
expect the settlement in host countries, including people having the entry visa
for the purpose of reunion with their families.
2) Registered labor migrants who can
be subdivided into two categories: Impermanent workers-contract employees,
as a rule, not qualified, or semi- qualified who are in a host country for a
certain period of time; Impermanent qualified employees who move from
one country to another as they work in transnational companies and/or in joint
3) Illegal (not registered) migrants,
as a result of illegal entrance or staying who have no legal status in a host
country. If host countries start to limit the allowing policy, this kind of
migration often increases. For host countries which have a weak immigration
control, in certain cases unregistered migration can be normal. By the way, it
is very essential for Kazakhstan.
4) Refuge seekers – people who cross
the country’s borders and hand in an application to get a refugee status
because of fear of prosecution b political, religious, ethnic motives or
because of belongingness to a certain social group. The decision on refuge
status granting is made according to the criteria formulated in the Convention
on the status of the refugee of 1951 and Report of 1967 for those countries
which have signed them.
5) Recognized refugees, according to
the Convention of 1951 on the status of refugees, people who are defined by the
governments of the certain states as refugees «because of well-founded fear of
prosecution on the basis of ethnicity, religion, citizenship, belongingness to
certain social groups or political views as a result of which they are outside
the country of their citizenship and cannot or do not want to take an advantage
of this country’s protection due to the designated fears; or without having
citizenship and being outside of the country of their usual residing as a
result of such events, not to be able to come back to their home countries».
Understanding that it is a lot of outwardly
displaced people who do not fall under this definition, forty two African 
and ten Latin American countries  have signed regional documents which
expand the concept of the refugees;
6) De facto refugees, sometimes are
designated with the term of outwardly displaced people, who do not fall under
the designation of refugee according to the Convention of 1951 or Report of
1967 but who, for the recognized important reasons (especially such as war or
violence expansion), are given temporary protection and consequently don’t have
to return to their countries of citizenship, or if they do not have citizenship
in the countries of habitual residing or living.
Undoubtedly, in a real life migration
occurrences can be different, and today’s often named migratory flows are still
interlaced, mixed up, and integrated.
1. Рыбаковский Л.Л.
Миграция населения: прогнозы, факторы, политика. – М.: «Наука», 1987. – С. 26.
2. Прибыткова И.М. Основы
демографии: Пособие для студентов гуманитарных и общественных высших учебных
заведений. – М.: «АртЭк». 1995.
– С. 232.
3. Рыбаковский Л.Л. – Отмеч.
Труд. – С. 24.
4. Overview of
International Migration. – it is specified work. – the river 2;
5. Pribytkova I.M. – It is
specified work. – p. 233.
6. Overview of
International Migration. – it is specified work. – p. 2
7. Appleyard, Reginald T. –
it is specified work. – p. 22-23;
8. Eppljard Redzhinald. –
It is specified work. – p. 16-19;
9. Overview of International
Migration. – It is specified work. – p. 3-4.
К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №4 - 2009