К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2008
Автор: Богун Анастасия Юрьевна
The actuality of the given theme is caused
by demands of society in a personality that possesses certain qualities of
thinking. Freedom of thinking means its critical focus oriented on creative and
The demands of society in critical
thinking person increases the significance of the problem of development the
corresponding thinking qualities. The
difficulties in formation and development of critical thinking are caused by
the absence of category of «Critical thinking» in science and of category
itself in didactics. The purpose of investigation: To find out pedagogical
conditions for the most effective development of critical thinking of students
by means of philosophy. Hypothesis
of investigation is the effective development of critical thinking of students
in educational process demands:
1) Generalization of the idea of critical
thinking in didactics;
2) Formation of model of critical thinking
as a combination of its qualities;
3) Discovery of development possibilities
of students’ critical thinking;
4) Substantion of methodology, that
provides development of critical thinking in educational process.
Language is the chief means by which the
human personality expresses itself and fulfills its basic need for social
interaction with other persons.
The aim of the foreign language in primary
schools is to develop pupils` skills and understanding English speech and
participating in conversation based on the topics covered.
The main aim of my article is to make us aware of all
the processes involved in critical thinking. Language learners often think that
all their difficulties in thinking are due to their inadequate knowledge of the
target language. The purpose
of my term paper is to share some activities that I have applied at my lessons
and that my students enjoyed. The
objective of these activities is to make students practice their oral skills
with interesting, motivating topics that allow them to think about themselves and
others and to express their points of view. The idea is to get them talk, which is something that
secondary school students love to do. When
the activities are carefully presented, students will be eager to use their
English language skills, which, of course, is the point.
There are exercises designed for students
who are learning English as a Second or Foreign Language for work purposes. It
can be used for native speakers who are learning English for future work. There
are can be used by itself or a complement to other text.
Defining the term
is rather uneasy: it includes too many various parameters: skills, kinds of
activity, values. So, actually, what do we mean, when we say «critical
thinking»?There are many definitions in the literature, and all of them stay in
the consent with each other. Meanwhile, this phenomenon should be equally clear
to everybody: from the teacher of initial classes up to teachers of university,
to teachers of the most various ethnoses and cultures, therefore its definition
should be flexible enough. And though readers work on the most various sites of
an extensive field, we all hope, that we shall manage to come nearer to such
definition of critical thinking on which it will be possible to lean in the
further conversation. Before passing the definition of the term, we shall
consider some kinds of cerebration to name which “critical thinking” is
impossible. I think that simple storing not is critical thinking.
Storing - the
major cogitative operation without which educational process is impossible, but
from critical thinking it differs cardinally. A computer memory is much better,
than almost at any of us, however we understand, that its ability to remember
is not thinking. However, many school teachers appreciate memory above any thinking
and check exclusively volume of memory of pupils on control works and
examinations, but, supporters of critical thinking are guided by more complex
kinds of activity.
Other kind of
"noncritical thinking” without which there can not be an educational
process too, is connected with understanding the complex ideas. At lessons of
biology and mathematics, history and the literature it is necessary sometimes
for pupils as it is necessary to work as they have to understand, what the
teacher speaks about or what is written in the textbook. Understanding is a
complex cogitative operation, especially if a material is not from the easiest
ones. For example: the student tries to understand Shakespeare's sonnet or
puzzles over the theorem of points of an extremum. In his head, it is
certainly, there is a complex intellectual process, but it is not yet the
Some teachers will
disagree with me, thinking, that the true understanding always means critical
thinking as the pupil translates another's ideas on language understandable for
him and a cogitative level. Nevertheless, when we work on understanding of
another's idea, at the first stage our own thinking is passive: we only
perceive what has been created up to us by someone, and the critical thinking
occurs, when the new, already understood ideas are checked, estimated,
developed and applied. Storing the facts and understanding the idea are
necessary conditions for critical thinking, however, they, even in the set, do
not make critical thinking.
First, the critical thinking is thinking
independent. When employment takes place on principles of critical thinking,
everyone formulates the ideas, estimations, belief irrespective of the others.
Nobody can critically think for us and to form about it their own opinion.The
critical thinking is not obliged to be absolutely original: we have the right
to accept idea or belief of other person as own. Even it is pleasant to us to
agree with someone's opinion as if it confirms our correctness.The critical
thinking is something obviously good, certain skill which will allow us to
succeed in 21 century.
information is starting, and at all a terminal point of critical thinking. The
knowledge creates motivation without which the person cannot critically think.
As people sometimes speak, « it is difficult to think with an empty head ». To
generate a complex idea, it is necessary to process mountain of "raw
material" - the facts, ideas, texts, the theories given, concepts. In
Slovakia I had one problem with students, in America opposite: my American
students frequently badly remember that has been studied, therefore, each new
author, each poem amazes with their absolute novelty. It is necessary to me to
make a footpaths from old - to new together with them, to restore skeletons of
knowledge, again and again to go deep into an actual material, differently
there will be a few advantages of critical skills. I am not going to equate
critical thinking to traditional studying the facts at all - clearly, that actual
knowledge by no means do not settle it. However teaching work is not reduced to
one training of critical thinking: we learn the wards to perceive the most
complex concepts and to keep in memory the diversified data.
To think it is
critically possible at any age: not only at students, but even at first-graders
it is saved up for knowledge. Certainly, powers of thinking of children will be
improved even at training, but even kids are capable to think critically and
quite. In the cognitive activity pupils and teachers, writers and scientists
subject each new fact to critical considering. Owing to critical thinking
traditional process of knowledge finds individuality and becomes comprehended,
continuous and productive.
critical thinking begins with statement of a question and explanation of
problems which need to be solved. We notice something new - and we wish to
learn. We see a certain sight - and we already would like to get inside.
However original, cognitive process at its any stage is characterized by
aspiration learning to solve problems and to answer the questions arising from
its own interests and needs.
critical thinking aspires to the convincing argument. Critically conceiving
person finds own decision of a problem and supports this decision reasonable,
sound arguments. He also understands, other decisions of the same problem are
possible, and tries to prove, that the chosen decision is more logical and more
rational. Critically conceiving person cannot be manipulated.
The argument wins
if to consider existence of possible counterarguments which either are
challenged, or admit admissible. The recognition of other points of view only
strengthens the argument.
And, at last,
fifthly, the critical thinking is thinking social. Any idea is checked and
perfected, when her share with others, - or as philosopher Hanna Arendt writes,
«perfection can be reached only in one’spresence ». When we argue, we read, we
discuss, we object and we deepen own positions. Therefore the teachers working
in a vein of critical thinking pay the big attention to development of the
qualities necessary for a productive exchange by opinions: tolerance, skill to
listen to others, the responsibility for own point of view.
All items of this
definition of critical thinking can be embodied in various kinds of educational
activity, but best of them - both for the teacher, and for pupils - is, as it
seems to me, written work. On the letter process of thinking becomes visible
and, hence, accessible to the teacher. Writing is always active. It always to
think independently and uses thus all a luggage of knowledge available.
For study of communication in the process
of thinking in school I made an experiment, which includes three phases. The
first phase included the choice of the lessons’ themes and of techniques and
resources to use there, and the research for the showing up of the students’
attitude to the English lessons, especially to the lessons of critical
On the second phase I was creating the
environment of communication and independence in the teaching- thinking
process. I took all 3 pictures (activities) during the lessons in each of two
classes, using in them special techniques and resources, which I had chosen
from ones described in the theoretical part of the research in compliance with
themes of the lessons.
К содержанию номера журнала: Вестник КАСУ №2 - 2008